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Pseudouridine (abbreviated Ψ) is the C-glycoside isomer of the nucleoside uridine, and it is the most prevalent of the over one hundred different modified nucleosides found in RNA.[1] Ψ is found in all species and in all classes of RNA except mRNA.[2] Ψ is formed by enzymes called Ψ synthases, which post-transcriptionally isomerize specific uridine residues in RNA in a process termed pseudouridylation.[3]



  1. Hamma T, Ferré-D'Amaré AR (2006). "Pseudouridine synthases". Chem. Biol. 13 (11): 1125–35. doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2006.09.009. PMID 17113994.
  2. Charette M, Gray MW (2000). "Pseudouridine in RNA: what, where, how, and why". IUBMB Life. 49 (5): 341–51. PMID 10902565.
  3. Ferré-D'Amaré AR (2003). "RNA-modifying enzymes". Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. 13 (1): 49–55. PMID 12581659.