Cardiomegaly causes

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Cardiomegaly Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective



Differentiating Cardiomegaly from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings


Chest X Ray



Echocardiography or Ultrasound

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Medical Therapy



Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Cardiomegaly causes On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


Ongoing Trials at Clinical

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Cardiomegaly causes

CDC on Cardiomegaly causes

Cardiomegaly causes in the news

Blogs on Cardiomegaly causes

Directions to Hospitals Treating Cardiomegaly causes

Risk calculators and risk factors for Cardiomegaly causes

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Mugilan Poongkunran M.B.B.S [2]


Cardiomegaly is often caused by hypertension, but it can also occur as a result of other heart conditions, such as congestive heart failure. Common causes of cardiomegaly due to dilation of the myocardium (not hypertrophy) are dilated cardiomyopathy (non-ischemic cardiomyopathy) and ischemic heart disease.


Life Threatening Causes

Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.

Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular ALCAPA, aortic dissection, aortic regurgitation, aortic stenosis, arrhythmia, atrial septal defect, carcinoid heart disease, cardiac myxoma, cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, chronic thromboebolic pulmonary hypertension, coarctation of aorta, congenital heart disease, congestive heart failure, cor pulmonale, Costello syndrome, Ebstein's anomaly, Eisenmenger's syndrome, endocardial fibroelastosis, endocarditis, familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, heart attack, hypertension, hypertrichotic osteochondrodysplasia, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease, Kawasaki disease, mitral regurgitation, mitral valve prolapse, myocardial infarction, myocarditis, Naxos disease, patent ductus arteriosus, pericardial effusion, pericarditis, peripartum cardiomyopathy, polyarteritis nodosa, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary regurgitation, pulmonary stenosis, rheumatic fever, Salih myopathy, tetralogy of fallot, transposition of great vessels, tricuspid regurgitation, tricuspid prolapse, valvular heart disease, ventricular aneurysm, ventricular septal defect, X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy
Chemical / poisoning Beryllium, carbon monoxide, cobalt, ethylene glycol
Dermatologic Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, Costello syndrome, hypertrichotic osteochondrodysplasia, multiple lentigines syndrome, Naxos disease
Drug Side Effect Anagrelide, anastrozole, aspirin, atenolol, bleomycin, carfilzomib, certolizumab pegol, didanosine, disopyramide, donepezil, doxorubicin, dronedarone, ethanol, fludrocortisone, hydrocortisone, lapatinib ditosylate, letrozole, liposomal amphotericin B, lithium, mecasermin (recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I), oprelvekin, phenothiazines, phenylbutazone, pindolol, pramipexole, prednisolone, procainamide, propranolol, ropinirole, rosiglitazone, sunitinib malate, synthetic androgens, trastuzumab, triamcinolone , troglitazone, verapamil, zidovudine
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Acromegaly, carcinoid heart disease, cushing syndrome, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Mulibrey nanism
Genetic 1p36 deletion syndrome, Alstrom syndrome, Barth syndrome, Becker muscular dystrophy, Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome, cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency, congenital generalized lipodystrophy, Costello syndrome, Danon disease, desmin-related myofibrillar myopathy, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, Fabry disease, familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Friedreich ataxia, fucosidosis, Gaucher disease, glycogenosis type 2b, hemochromatosis, hereditary spherocytosis, Hunter syndrome, hypertrichotic osteochondrodysplasia, infantile sialic acid storage disorder, isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, Laing distal myopathy, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency, McLeod neuroacanthocytosis syndrome, MELAS, Morquio syndrome, mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB, Hurler syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, Mulibrey nanism, multiple lentigines syndrome, myotonic dystrophy, Naxos disease, Noonan syndrome, Pompe's disease, Refsum disease, Salih myopathy, Sandhoff disease, sickle cell disease, Singleton-Merten syndrome, Tay-Sachs' disease, thalassemia, very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy, Yunis-Varon syndrome
Hematologic Anemia, hemochromatosis, hereditary spherocytosis, McLeod neuroacanthocytosis syndrome, sickle cell disease, thalassemia
Iatrogenic Water overload, postradiation, cardiac catheterization, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, heart surgery, percutaneous coronary intervention, postpericardiotomy syndrome
Infectious Disease Brucellosis, chagas disease, coxsackie virus, cryptococcosis, cytomegalovirus, diphtheria, echovirus, Epstein-Barr, hepatitis, histoplasmosis, HIV, Lyme disease, psittacosis, rheumatic fever, rickettsial disease, schistosomiasis, toxoplasmosis, trichinosis, trypanosomiasis, typhoid fever, varicella
Musculoskeletal / Ortho Becker muscular dystrophy, desmin-related myofibrillar myopathy, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, X-linked, hypertrichotic osteochondrodysplasia, Laing distal myopathy, Mulibrey nanism, myotonic dystrophy, Salih myopathy, Yunis-Varon syndrome
Neurologic Costello syndrome, Friedreich ataxia, Mulibrey nanism
Nutritional / Metabolic Alstrom syndrome, Barth syndrome, beri-beri, carnitine palmitoyltransferase deficiency, Fabry disease, fucosidosis, Gaucher disease, glycogenosis type 2b, Hunter syndrome, infantile sialic acid storage disorder, isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, kwashiorkor, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency, Morquio syndrome, mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB, Pompe's disease, Refsum disease, Sandhoff disease, selenium deficiency, Tay-Sachs' disease
Obstetric/Gynecologic Hemolytic disease of the newborn, infants born to diabetic mothers, peripartum cardiomyopathy, peripartum heart failure, pregnancy, twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome
Oncologic Carcinoid heart disease, cardiac myxoma, lymphadenopathy, mediastinal mass, pheochromocytoma
Opthalmologic Mulibrey nanism, Alstrom syndrome
Overdose / Toxicity Anastrozole, lithium, mecasermin (recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I), olanzapine, oprelvekin, phenothiazines, phenylbutazone, pindolol, procainamide, rosiglitazone, sunitinib malate, trastuzumab, troglitazone, verapamil, zidovudine
Psychiatric Takotsubo cardiomyopathy
Pulmonary Coal worker pneumoconiosis, COPD, cor pulmonale, fibrosing mediastinitis, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, sleep apnea
Renal / Electrolyte Hypocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, renal failure, uremia
Rheum / Immune / Allergy Amyloidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Blunt or penetrating chest trauma, esophogeal perforation
Urologic No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Alcoholism, athletes

Causes in Alphabetical Order

Cardiomegaly causes developed by


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