Difference between revisions of "Animal heme-dependent peroxidases"
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|Animal haem peroxidase|
Animal heme-dependent peroxidases is a family of peroxidases.
Peroxidases are found in bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. On the basis of sequence similarity, a number of animal haem peroxidases can be categorised as members of a superfamily: myeloperoxidase (MPO); eosinophil peroxidase (EPO); lactoperoxidase (LPO); thyroid peroxidase (TPO); prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS); and peroxidasin.
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) plays a major role in the oxygen-dependent microbicidal system of neutrophils. EPO from eosinophilic granulocytes participates in immunological reactions, and potentiates tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production and hydrogen peroxide release by human monocyte-derived macrophages. In the main, MPO (and possibly EPO) utilises Cl-ions and H2O2 to form hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which can effectively kill bacteria or parasites. In secreted fluids, LPO catalyses the oxidation of thiocyanate ions (SCN-) by H2O2, producing the weak oxidising agent hypothiocyanite (OSCN-), which has bacteriostatic activity. TPO uses I- ions and H2O2 to generate iodine, and plays a central role in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones T(3) and T(4).
3D structures of MPO and PGHS have been reported. MPO is a homodimer: each monomer consists of a light (A or B) and a heavy (C or D) chain resulting from post-translational excision of 6 residues from the common precursor. Monomers are linked by a single inter-chain disulphide. Each monomer includes a bound calcium ion. PGHS exists as a symmetric dimer, each monomer of which consists of 3 domains: an N-terminal epidermal growth factor (EGF) like module; a membrane-binding domain; and a large C-terminal catalytic domain containing the cyclooxygenase and the peroxidase active sites. The catalytic domain shows striking structural similarity to MPO.
The cyclooxygenase active site, which catalyses the formation of prostaglandin G2 (PGG2) from arachidonic acid, resides at the apex of a long hydrophobic channel, extending from the membrane-binding domain to the centre of the molecule. The peroxidase active site, which catalyses the reduction of PGG2 to PGH2, is located on the other side of the molecule, at the haem binding site. Both MPO and the catalytic domain of PGHS are mainly alpha-helical, 19 helices being identified as topologically and spatially equivalent; PGHS contains 5 additional N-terminal helices that have no equivalent in MPO. In both proteins, three Asn residues in each monomer are glycosylated.
Human proteins containing this domain
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- Poulos TL, Li H (1994). "Structural variation in heme enzymes: a comparative analysis of peroxidase and P450 crystal structures". Structure. 2 (6): 461–464. PMID 7922023.
- Kimura S, Ikeda-Saito M (1988). "Human myeloperoxidase and thyroid peroxidase, two enzymes with separate and distinct physiological functions, are evolutionarily related members of the same gene family". Proteins. 3 (2): 113–120. PMID 2840655.
- Kimura S, Hong YS, Kotani T, Ohtaki S, Kikkawa F (1989). "Structure of the human thyroid peroxidase gene: comparison and relationship
to the human myeloperoxidase gene". Biochemistry. 28 (10): 4481–4489. PMID 2548579. line feed character in
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- Spessotto P, Dri P, Bulla R, Zabucchi G, Patriarca P (1995). "Human eosinophil peroxidase enhances tumor necrosis factor and hydrogen peroxide release by human monocyte-derived macrophages". Eur. J. Immunol. 25 (5): 1366–1373. PMID 7774640.
- Wever R, Kast WM, Kasinoedin JH, Boelens R (1982). "The peroxidation of thiocyanate catalysed by myeloperoxidase and lactoperoxidase". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 709 (2): 212–219. PMID 6295491.
- Fenna RE, Zeng J (1992). "X-ray crystal structure of canine myeloperoxidase at 3 A resolution". J. Mol. Biol. 226 (1): 185–207. PMID 1320128.
- Picot D, Loll PJ, Garavito RM (1994). "The X-ray crystal structure of the membrane protein prostaglandin H2 synthase-1". Nature. 367 (6460): 243–249. PMID 8121489.