Turner syndrome overview
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Turner syndrome was first described in 1938 by Henry Turner when he noticed a triad of short stature, cubitus valgus and pterygium colli. Other scientists went to to discover the pathophysiology of the 45 XO karyotype and the presence of streaked ovaries.
There is no established system for the classification of Turner syndrome.
Humans have 46 chromosomes. Chromosomes contain all of your genes and DNA, the building blocks of the body. Two of these chromosomes, the sex chromosomes, determine if you become a boy or a girl. Loss the paternally or maternally derived X chromosome would lead to the class 45 XO karyotype. Sometimes, an individual may have two cells lines with different genetic makeups. The percentage of this mosaicism is said to determine the severity of the phenotype in the patient. Structural abnormalities such as the formation of a ring chromosome or an isochromosome and other mechanisms such as lyonization or imprinting also play a role in the pathophysiology of Turner Syndrome.
Humans have 46 chromosomes. Chromosomes contain all of your genes and DNA, the building blocks of the body. Two of these chromosomes, the sex chromosomes, determine if you become a boy or a girl. Females normally have two of the same sex chromosomes, written as XX. Males have an X and a Y chromosome (written as XY). In Turner syndrome, cells are missing all or part of an X chromosome. The condition only occurs in females. Most commonly, the female patient has only one X chromosome. Others may have two X chromosomes, but one of them is incomplete. Sometimes, a female has some cells with two X chromosomes, but other cells have only one.
Differentiating Turner syndrome from Other Diseases
Turner's syndrome must be differentiated from other diseases that cause latency in secondary sexual characteristics development, such as constitutional delay of puberty, hypopituitarism, delayed puberty, and chromosomal abnormalities. Chromosomal abnormality is Noonan's syndrome.
Epidemiology and Demographics
There is currently no known cause for Turner syndrome, though there are several theories surrounding the subject.
Screening for complications of Turner syndrome starts as early as a prenatal visit. Abnormal maternal serum screening tests or an ultrasound detecting structural anomalies such shortned limbs, cystic hygromas, congenital heart defects or increased swelling of the hands or feet may point towards a diagnosis of Turner syndrome. As the years progress, screening involves a multidisciplinary combination of lab investigations (such as serum gonadotrophins,liver function tests, renal function tests, etc), referral to other departments (cardiology, endocrinology, ophthalmology, etc) and tools such as DEXA scans, X-rays, echocardiography, etc.
Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis
Natural history of the patient would depend on the age of the diagnoses and what complications have developed by the time the patients presents to the physician. Congenital lymphedema may take several years to decrease. The patient experiences low self esteem due to their short stature, decreased visual spatial functioning, hyperactivity, poor facial recognition and preference for social isolation. As soon as the patient is capable of understanding, counseling regarding the risks and benefits of Turner syndrome should be explained. When compared to the general population, Turner syndrome patients have an increased mortality rate.
Diagnostic Study of Choice
The diagnostic study of choice for the diagnosis of Turner syndrome is karyotype analysis of 30 blood lymphocytes. Examination of additional cells , polymerase chain reaction, fluorescent in situ hybridization, Southern blotting, restricted fragment length polymorphisms and new generation gene sequencing techniques may be employed following the interpretation of the initial karyotype.
History and Symptoms
Natural history of the patient would depend on the age of the diagnoses and what complications have developed by the time the patients presents to the physician. Congenital lymphedema may take several years to decrease. The patient experiences low self esteem due to their short stature, decreased visual spatial functioning, hyperactivity, poor facial recognition and preference for social isolation. As soon as the patient is capable of understanding, counseling regaridng the risks and benefits of Turner syndrome should be explained.
Echocardiography and Ultrasound
Prenatal ultrasounds my show a left-sided cardiac defect, renal anomalies, growth retardation, relatively short limbs, fetal edema, cystic hygroma, polyhydramnios and brachycephaly. Echocardiographies and renal ultrasounds help detect structural defects.
Cardiac MRIs are helpful in screening/detecting the following cardiac abnormalities and functional MRIs have been used to study neural pathways responsible for poor visual spatial skills and executive function.
Other Imaging Findings
There are no other imaging findings associated with Turner syndrome.
Other Diagnostic Studies
The diagnostic study of choice for the diagnosis of Turner syndrome is karyotype analysis of 30 blood lymphocytes. Findings may include the classic 45 XO karyotype, mosaicism and structural anomalies like isochromosomes or ring chromosomes.
Medical therapies include growth hormone, estrogen replacement therapy, oxandrolone (if growth hormone achieves suboptimal height), vitamin D supplementation, oral hypoglycemic agents and anti-hypertensives.
Psycosocial interventions aimed at treating ][visual spatial and executive function]] deficits along with in vitro fertilization (for infertility) are the interventions commonly used in Turner syndrome.
There are no established measures for the secondary prevention of Turner Syndrome. Secondary prevention is aimed at preventing complications of Turner syndrome. This involves frequent screening of complications.