Tuberous sclerosis physical examination
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The skin is examined under a Wood's lamp. The most common skin abnormalities include:
- Facial angiofibromas
- Ungual or subungual fibromas
- Hypomelanic macules ("ash leaf spots")
- Forehead plaques
- Shagreen patches
- Molluscum fibrosum or skin tags
- Cafe-au-lait spots or flat brown marks
- Retinal lesions - astrocytic hamartomas, which may cause blindness.
- Non-retinal lesions associated with TSC include
- Coarse rales are heard when lung parenchyma is involved.
- Bronchial breathing and bronchophony are heard on auscultation when multiple cysts occur in the lungs.
- Rough growths under or around the fingernails and toenails
- Abnormal size of head in children - due to hydrocephalus