Trichinosis risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Danitza Lukac


Common risk factors in the development of trichinosis disease are: consuming raw or undercooked meat, informal meat transportation, age, antimicrobial free/organic pork and hunting practices.[1][2][3][4][5]

Risk factors

Common risk factors in the development of trichinosis disease are:

Consuming Raw or Undercooked Meat

  • Particularly wild game meat or pork[1]
  • Informal or clandestine meat transportation[2]


  • Predominance of infection in adults probably results from culture-driven food behavior. Improperly cooked or prepared meat dishes may be more commonly eaten at adult-oriented events, particularly if alcohol is consumed.[2]

Antimicrobial Free/Organic Pork

  • Farmers and producers must certify the safety of the meat by using good practices.[3][4]

Hunting Practices

  • In some countries such as Papua New Guinea, hunting practices lead men to eat undercooked meat regularly.[5]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Trichinellosis. CDC. Accessed on January 28, 2016
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Murrell KD, Pozio E (2011). "Worldwide occurrence and impact of human trichinellosis, 1986-2009". Emerg Infect Dis. 17 (12): 2194–202. doi:10.3201/eid1712.110896. PMC 3311199. PMID 22172230.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Gottstein B, Pozio E, Nöckler K (2009). "Epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and control of trichinellosis". Clin Microbiol Rev. 22 (1): 127–45, Table of Contents. doi:10.1128/CMR.00026-08. PMC 2620635. PMID 19136437.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Gebreyes WA, Bahnson PB, Funk JA, McKean J, Patchanee P (2008). "Seroprevalence of Trichinella, Toxoplasma, and Salmonella in antimicrobial-free and conventional swine production systems". Foodborne Pathog Dis. 5 (2): 199–203. doi:10.1089/fpd.2007.0071. PMID 18407758.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Owen IL, Pozio E, Tamburrini A, Danaya RT, Bruschi F, Gomez Morales MA (2001). "Focus of human trichinellosis in Papua New Guinea". Am J Trop Med Hyg. 65 (5): 553–7. PMID 11716113.