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TOX high mobility group box family member 3
Alt. symbolsTNRC9, CAGF9
Other data
LocusChr. 16 q12.1

TOX high mobility group box family member 3, also known as TOX3, is a human gene.[1][2]

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a subfamily of transcription factors that also includes TOX, TOX2, and TOX4 that share almost identical HMG-box DNA-binding domains which function to modify chromatin structure.[2]

Disease linkage

Mutations in the TOX3 gene are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.[3][4][5][6]


  1. "Entrez Gene: TOX high mobility group box family member 3".
  2. 2.0 2.1 O'Flaherty E, Kaye J (April 2003). "TOX defines a conserved subfamily of HMG-box proteins". BMC Genomics. 4: 13. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-4-13. PMC 155677. PMID 12697058.
  3. Smid M, Wang Y, Klijn JG, Sieuwerts AM, Zhang Y, Atkins D, Martens JW, Foekens JA (May 2006). "Genes associated with breast cancer metastatic to bone". J. Clin. Oncol. 24 (15): 2261–7. doi:10.1200/JCO.2005.03.8802. PMID 16636340.
  4. Easton DF, Pooley KA, Dunning AM, et al. (June 2007). "Genome-wide association study identifies novel breast cancer susceptibility loci". Nature. 447 (7148): 1087–93. doi:10.1038/nature05887. PMC 2714974. PMID 17529967.
  5. Stacey SN, Manolescu A, Sulem P, et al. (July 2007). "Common variants on chromosomes 2q35 and 16q12 confer susceptibility to estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer". Nat. Genet. 39 (7): 865–9. doi:10.1038/ng2064. PMID 17529974.
  6. Antoniou AC, Spurdle AB, Sinilnikova OM, et al. (April 2008). "Common Breast Cancer-Predisposition Alleles Are Associated with Breast Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 82 (4): 937–48. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.02.008. PMC 2427217. PMID 18355772.