TGF beta 3

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Transforming growth factor beta-3
Other names: TGF-beta-3
Genetic data
Locus: Chr. 14 q24
Gene code: HUGO code:TGFB3
Protein Structure/Function
Structure: Molecular structure
Protein type: TGF beta family
Functions: cell differentiation, embryogenesis
Taxa expressing: Homo sapiens; homologs: many metazoan phyla
Cell types: many
Subcellular localization: extracellular
Covalent modifications: glycosylation
Medical/Biotechnological data
Diseases: Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia 1
Database Links
Entrez: 7043
OMIM: 190230
RefSeq: NM_003239
UniProt: P10600

Transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGF-β3) is a type of protein, known as a cytokine, which is involved in cell differentiation, embryogenesis and development. It belongs to a large family of cytokines called the Transforming growth factor beta superfamily, which includes the TGF-β family, Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), growth and differentiation factors (GDFs), inhibins and activins.[1]

TGF-β3 is believed to regulate molecules involved in cellular adhesion and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation during the process of palate development. Without TGF-β3, mammals develop a deformity known as a cleft palate.[2][3] This is caused by failure of epithelial cells in both sides of the developing palate to fuse. TGF-β3 also plays an essential role in controlling the development of lungs in mammals, by also regulating cell adhesion and ECM formation in this tissue,[4] and controls wound healing by regulating the movements of epidermal and dermal cells in injured skin.[5]


  1. Herpin A, Lelong C, Favrel P (2004). "Transforming growth factor-beta-related proteins: an ancestral and widespread superfamily of cytokines in metazoans". Dev Comp Immunol. 28 (5): 461–85. PMID 15062644.
  2. Taya Y, O'Kane S, Ferguson M (1999). "Pathogenesis of cleft palate in TGF-beta3 knockout mice". Development. 126 (17): 3869–79. PMID 10433915.
  3. Dudas M, Nagy A, Laping N, Moustakas A, Kaartinen V (2004). "Tgf-beta3-induced palatal fusion is mediated by Alk-5/Smad pathway". Dev Biol. 266 (1): 96–108. PMID 14729481.
  4. Kaartinen V, Voncken J, Shuler C, Warburton D, Bu D, Heisterkamp N, Groffen J (1995). "Abnormal lung development and cleft palate in mice lacking TGF-beta 3 indicates defects of epithelial-mesenchymal interaction". Nat Genet. 11 (4): 415–21. PMID 7493022.
  5. Bandyopadhyay B, Fan J, Guan S, Li Y, Chen M, Woodley DT, Li W (2006). "A "traffic control" role for TGFbeta3: orchestrating dermal and epidermal cell motility during wound healing". J Cell Biol. 172 (7): 1093–105. PMID 16549496.