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External IDsGeneCards: [1]
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



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Thiamine transporter 2 (ThTr-2), also known as solute carrier family 19 member 3, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC19A3 gene.[1][2][3] SLC19A3 is a thiamine transporter.


ThTr-2 is a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane thiamine transporter that lacks folate transport activity.[1]

It is specifically inhibited by chloroquine.[4]

Clinical significance

Mutations in this gene cause biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease (BBGD); a recessive disorder manifested in childhood that progresses to chronic encephalopathy, dystonia, quadriparesis, and death if untreated. Patients with BBGD have bilateral necrosis in the head of the caudate nucleus and in the putamen. Administration of high doses of biotin in the early progression of the disorder eliminates pathological symptoms while delayed treatment results in residual paraparesis, mild mental retardation, or dystonia. Administration of thiamine is ineffective in the treatment of this disorder. Experiments have failed to show that this protein can transport biotin. Mutations in this gene also cause a Wernicke's-like encephalopathy.[1]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Entrez Gene: solute carrier family 19".
  2. Eudy JD, Spiegelstein O, Barber RC, Wlodarczyk BJ, Talbot J, Finnell RH (December 2000). "Identification and characterization of the human and mouse SLC19A3 gene: a novel member of the reduced folate family of micronutrient transporter genes". Mol. Genet. Metab. 71 (4): 581–90. doi:10.1006/mgme.2000.3112. PMID 11136550.
  3. Zeng WQ, Al-Yamani E, Acierno JS, Slaugenhaupt S, Gillis T, MacDonald ME, Ozand PT, Gusella JF (July 2005). "Biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease maps to 2q36.3 and is due to mutations in SLC19A3". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 77 (1): 16–26. doi:10.1086/431216. PMC 1226189. PMID 15871139.
  4. Huang Z, Srinivasan S, Zhang J, Chen K, Li Y, Li W, Quiocho FA, Pan X (2012). "Discovering thiamine transporters as targets of chloroquine using a novel functional genomics strategy". PLoS Genet. 8 (11): e1003083. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003083. PMC 3510038. PMID 23209439. open access publication – free to read

Further reading

External links

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.