Retinoid X receptor gamma

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External IDsGeneCards: [1]
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



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Retinoic acid receptor gamma (RXR-gamma), also known as NR2B3 (nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group B, member 3) is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the RXRG gene.[1][2]


This gene encodes a member of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) family of nuclear receptors which are involved in mediating the antiproliferative effects of retinoic acid (RA). This receptor forms heterodimers with the retinoic acid, thyroid hormone, and vitamin D receptors, increasing both DNA binding and transcriptional function on their respective response elements. This gene is expressed at significantly lower levels in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized.[2]

See also


Retinoid X receptor gamma has been shown to interact with ITGB3BP.[3]


  1. Almasan A, Mangelsdorf DJ, Ong ES, Wahl GM, Evans RM (April 1994). "Chromosomal localization of the human retinoid X receptors". Genomics. 20 (3): 397–403. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1193. PMID 8034312.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Entrez Gene: RXRG retinoid X receptor, gamma".
  3. Li D, Wang F, Samuels HH (Dec 2001). "Domain structure of the NRIF3 family of coregulators suggests potential dual roles in transcriptional regulation". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (24): 8371–84. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.24.8371-8384.2001. PMC 100002. PMID 11713274.

Further reading

  • Szanto A, Narkar V, Shen Q, Uray IP, Davies PJ, Nagy L (2005). "Retinoid X receptors: X-ploring their (patho)physiological functions". Cell Death Differ. 11 Suppl 2: S126–43. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4401533. PMID 15608692.
  • Leid M, Kastner P, Lyons R, Nakshatri H, Saunders M, Zacharewski T, Chen JY, Staub A, Garnier JM, Mader S (1992). "Purification, cloning, and RXR identity of the HeLa cell factor with which RAR or TR heterodimerizes to bind target sequences efficiently". Cell. 68 (2): 377–95. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(92)90478-U. PMID 1310259.
  • Mangelsdorf DJ, Borgmeyer U, Heyman RA, Zhou JY, Ong ES, Oro AE, Kakizuka A, Evans RM (1992). "Characterization of three RXR genes that mediate the action of 9-cis retinoic acid". Genes Dev. 6 (3): 329–44. doi:10.1101/gad.6.3.329. PMID 1312497.
  • Nagata T, Weiss EH, Abe K, Kitagawa K, Ando A, Yara-Kikuti Y, Seldin MF, Ozato K, Inoko H, Taketo M (1995). "Physical mapping of the retinoid X receptor B gene in mouse and human". Immunogenetics. 41 (2–3): 83–90. doi:10.1007/BF00182317. PMID 7806300.
  • Muscat GE, Mynett-Johnson L, Dowhan D, Downes M, Griggs R (1994). "Activation of myoD gene transcription by 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine: a direct role for the thyroid hormone and retinoid X receptors". Nucleic Acids Res. 22 (4): 583–91. doi:10.1093/nar/22.4.583. PMC 307847. PMID 8127707.
  • Kamei Y, Xu L, Heinzel T, Torchia J, Kurokawa R, Gloss B, Lin SC, Heyman RA, Rose DW, Glass CK, Rosenfeld MG (1996). "A CBP integrator complex mediates transcriptional activation and AP-1 inhibition by nuclear receptors". Cell. 85 (3): 403–14. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81118-6. PMID 8616895.
  • Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). "Normalization and subtraction: two approaches to facilitate gene discovery". Genome Res. 6 (9): 791–806. doi:10.1101/gr.6.9.791. PMID 8889548.
  • Sanno N, Sugawara A, Teramoto A, Abe Y, Yen PM, Chin WW, Osamura RY (1997). "Immunohistochemical expression of retinoid X receptor isoforms in human pituitaries and pituitary adenomas". Neuroendocrinology. 65 (4): 299–306. doi:10.1159/000127188. PMID 9143002.
  • Reichrath J, Mittmann M, Kamradt J, Müller SM (1997). "Expression of retinoid-X receptors (-alpha,-beta,-gamma) and retinoic acid receptors (-alpha,-beta,-gamma) in normal human skin: an immunohistological evaluation". Histochem. J. 29 (2): 127–33. doi:10.1023/A:1026481205135. PMID 9147069.
  • Xu XC, Sozzi G, Lee JS, Lee JJ, Pastorino U, Pilotti S, Kurie JM, Hong WK, Lotan R (1997). "Suppression of retinoic acid receptor beta in non-small-cell lung cancer in vivo: implications for lung cancer development". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 89 (9): 624–9. doi:10.1093/jnci/89.9.624. PMID 9150186.
  • Yusta B, Alarid ET, Gordon DF, Ridgway EC, Mellon PL (1998). "The thyrotropin beta-subunit gene is repressed by thyroid hormone in a novel thyrotrope cell line, mouse T alphaT1 cells". Endocrinology. 139 (11): 4476–82. doi:10.1210/en.139.11.4476. PMID 9794455.
  • Ito K, Suzuki T, Moriya T, Utsunomiya H, Sugawara A, Konno R, Sato S, Sasano H (2001). "Retinoid receptors in the human endometrium and its disorders: a possible modulator of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 86 (6): 2721–7. doi:10.1210/jc.86.6.2721. PMID 11397877.
  • Kim SW, Kim HJ, Jung DJ, Lee SK, Kim YS, Kim JH, Kim TS, Lee JW (2001). "Retinoid-dependent antagonism of serum response factor transactivation mediated by transcriptional coactivator proteins". Oncogene. 20 (45): 6638–42. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1204695. PMID 11641790.
  • Brabender J, Danenberg KD, Metzger R, Schneider PM, Lord RV, Groshen S, Tsao-Wei DD, Park J, Salonga D, Hölscher AH, Danenberg PV (2002). "The role of retinoid X receptor messenger RNA expression in curatively resected non-small cell lung cancer". Clin. Cancer Res. 8 (2): 438–43. PMID 11839661.
  • Wansa KD, Harris JM, Muscat GE (2002). "The activation function-1 domain of Nur77/NR4A1 mediates trans-activation, cell specificity, and coactivator recruitment". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (36): 33001–11. doi:10.1074/jbc.M203572200. PMID 12082103.
  • Wang Q, Fujii H, Knipp GT (2003). "Expression of PPAR and RXR isoforms in the developing rat and human term placentas". Placenta. 23 (8–9): 661–71. doi:10.1053/plac.2002.0855. PMID 12361685.
  • Kimura Y, Suzuki T, Kaneko C, Darnel AD, Moriya T, Suzuki S, Handa M, Ebina M, Nukiwa T, Sasano H (2003). "Retinoid receptors in the developing human lung". Clin. Sci. 103 (6): 613–21. PMID 12444914.
  • Alfaro JM, Fraile B, Lobo MV, Royuela M, Paniagua R, Arenas MI (2003). "Immunohistochemical detection of the retinoid X receptors alpha, beta, and gamma in human prostate". J. Androl. 24 (1): 113–9. PMID 12514092.

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.