Protein energy malnutrition causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Omodamola Aje B.Sc, M.D. [2]


Protein energy malnutrition may be caused by reduced breast feeding, poor weaning practices, limited availability of food and inadequate child care in cases of extreme poverty. This classically affects several poor people in regions of poor social and economic background. Other environmental causes such as infections, drought and earthquakes leading to decreased availability of food have also been identified.


Protein energy malnutrition may be caused by:[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]


  1. Sachs JD, McArthur JW (2005). "The Millennium Project: a plan for meeting the Millennium Development Goals". Lancet. 365 (9456): 347–53. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)17791-5. PMID 15664232.
  2. de Waal A, Whiteside A (2003). "New variant famine: AIDS and food crisis in southern Africa". Lancet. 362 (9391): 1234–7. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14548-5. PMID 14568749.
  3. Salama P, Spiegel P, Talley L, Waldman R (2004). "Lessons learned from complex emergencies over past decade". Lancet. 364 (9447): 1801–13. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17405-9. PMID 15541455.
  4. Young H, Borrel A, Holland D, Salama P (2004). "Public nutrition in complex emergencies". Lancet. 364 (9448): 1899–909. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17447-3. PMID 15555671.
  5. Greiner T (1994). "Maternal protein-energy malnutrition and breastfeeding". SCN News (11): 28–30. PMID 12288233.
  6. "Maternal Nutrition and Birth Outcomes | Epidemiologic Reviews | Oxford Academic".
  7. Ahmed T, Begum B, Badiuzzaman, Ali M, Fuchs G (2001). "Management of severe malnutrition and diarrhea". Indian J Pediatr. 68 (1): 45–51. PMID 11237236.
  8. Aaby P, Coovadia H (1985). "Severe measles: a reappraisal of the role of nutrition, overcrowding and virus dose". Med. Hypotheses. 18 (2): 93–112. PMID 3939698.
  9. "WHO | Global climate change: implications for international public health policy".
  10. Bhutta ZA (2006). "Effect of infections and environmental factors on growth and nutritional status in developing countries". J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 43 Suppl 3: S13–21. doi:10.1097/01.mpg.0000255846.77034.ed. PMID 17204974.

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