Primary biliary cirrhosis risk factors
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- The most potent risk factor in the development of primary biliary cirrhosis is positive family history. Other risk factors include age (30-60 years), female sex, infections and environmental toxins.
Common Risk Factors
- Common risk factors in the development of Primary biliary cirrhosis may be occupational, environmental, genetic, and microbial.
- Common risk factors in the development of primary biliary cirrhosis include:
- Age: Patients with age between 30-60 years are at highest risk
- Sex: Female sex is at higher risk
- Geographic distribution: Increased risk in North America and Northern Europe.
- Genetic predisposition: HLA-DRB1*0801 haplotype
Less Common Risk Factors
- Less common risk factors in the development of primary biliary cirrhosis include:
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- Gershwin ME, Selmi C, Worman HJ, Gold EB, Watnik M, Utts J; et al. (2005). "Risk factors and comorbidities in primary biliary cirrhosis: a controlled interview-based study of 1032 patients". Hepatology. 42 (5): 1194–202. doi:10.1002/hep.20907. PMC 3150736. PMID 16250040.
- Parikh-Patel A, Gold EB, Worman H, Krivy KE, Gershwin ME (2001). "Risk factors for primary biliary cirrhosis in a cohort of patients from the united states". Hepatology. 33 (1): 16–21. doi:10.1053/jhep.2001.21165. PMID 11124815.
- Selmi C, Mayo MJ, Bach N, Ishibashi H, Invernizzi P, Gish RG; et al. (2004). "Primary biliary cirrhosis in monozygotic and dizygotic twins: genetics, epigenetics, and environment". Gastroenterology. 127 (2): 485–92. PMID 15300581.
- Coghlin J, Hammond SK, Gann PH (1989). "Development of epidemiologic tools for measuring environmental tobacco smoke exposure". Am J Epidemiol. 130 (4): 696–704. PMID 2773917.