Pedal edema (patient information)

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Pedal edema


What are the symptoms?

What are the causes?

Who is at highest risk?


When to seek urgent medical care?

Treatment options

Where to find medical care for Pedal edema?


What to expect (Outlook/Prognosis)?

Possible complications

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Directions to Hospitals Treating Pedal edema

Risk calculators and risk factors for Pedal edema

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Kalsang Dolma, M.B.B.S.[2]


Painless swelling of the feet and ankles is a common problem, especially among older people.

Abnormal buildup of fluid in the ankles, feet, and legs is called edema.

What causes Pedal edema?

Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common with the following situations:

Being overweight Blood clot in the leg Increased age Leg infection Veins in the legs that cannot properly pump blood back to the heart Injury or surgery involving the leg, ankle, or foot can cause swelling. Swelling may also occur after pelvic surgery, especially for cancer.

Long airplane flights or car rides, as well as standing for long periods of time, often lead to some swelling in the feet and ankles.

Swelling may occur in women who take estrogen or during parts of the menstrual cycle. Most women have some swelling during pregnancy. More severe swelling during pregnancy may be a sign of preeclampsia (also called toxemia), a serious condition that includes high blood pressure and swelling.

Swollen legs may be a sign of heart failure, kidney failure, or liver failure. In these conditions, there is too much fluid in the body.

Certain medications may also cause your legs to swell:

Antidepressants, including MAO inhibitors (such as phenelzine and tranylcypromine) and tricyclics (such as nortriptyline, desipramine, and amitriptyline) Blood pressure medicines called calcium channel blockers (such as nifedipine, amlodipine, diltiazem, felodipine, and verapamil) Hormones like estrogen (in birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy) and testosterone Steroids.


Your doctor will take a medical history and do a thorough physical examination, paying special attention to your heart, lungs, abdomen, lymph nodes, legs, and feet.

Your doctor will ask questions like the following:

  • What body parts swell? Your ankles, feet, legs? Above the knee or below?
  • Do you have swelling at all times or is it worse in the morning or evening?
  • What makes your swelling better?
  • What makes your swelling worse?
  • Does the swelling get better when you raise your legs?
  • What other symptoms do you have?
  • Diagnostic tests that may be done include the following:

The treatment will be aimed at the cause of the swelling. Diuretics may be prescribed to reduce the swelling, but they can have side effects. Home treatment for benign causes of leg swelling should be tried before drug therapy.

When to seek urgent medical care?

Call 911 if:

  • You feel short of breath.
  • You have chest pain, especially if it feels like pressure or tightness.
  • Call your doctor right away if:
    • You have heart disease or kidney disease and the swelling gets worse.
    • You have a history of liver disease and now have swelling in your legs or abdomen.
    • Your swollen foot or leg is red or warm to the touch.
    • You have a fever.
    • You are pregnant and have more than just mild swelling or have a sudden increase in swelling.
    • Also call your doctor if self-care measures do not help or swelling gets worse.

Treatment options

Some tips that may help:

  • Raise your legs above your heart while lying down.
  • Exercise your legs. This helps pump fluid from your legs back to your heart.
  • Follow a low-salt diet, which may reduce fluid buildup and swelling.
  • Wear support stockings (sold at most drug and medical supply stores).
  • When traveling, take breaks often to stand up and move around.
  • Avoid wearing tight clothing or garters around your thighs.
  • Lose weight if you need to.
  • Never stop taking any medicines you think may be causing swelling without first talking to your doctor.

Where to find medical care for Pedal edema?

Directions to Hospitals Treating Pedal edema

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