Noonan syndrome physical examination

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Noonan syndrome Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective



Differentiating Noonan syndrome from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Imaging Findings

ECG Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Management & Follow-up

Genetic Counseling

Case Studies

Case #1

Noonan syndrome physical examination On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Noonan syndrome physical examination

All Images
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images

Ongoing Trials at Clinical

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Noonan syndrome physical examination

CDC on Noonan syndrome physical examination

Noonan syndrome physical examination in the news

Blogs on Noonan syndrome physical examination

Directions to Hospitals Treating Noonan syndrome

Risk calculators and risk factors for Noonan syndrome physical examination

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Serge Korjian, Yazan Daaboul


A careful physical exam at diagnosis would often reveal many of the manifestations of Noonan syndrome although variable presentations are typically seen. Findings may include a cardiac murmur, signs of heart failure, typical facial features, skin abnormalities, short stature, cryptorchidism, ans skeletal abnormalities among others.

Physical Examination

The most important part of the diagnosis of Noonan syndrome is a careful physical exam. Although patients often do not manifest all the features of the disorder, certain physical exam findings can orient towards the diagnosis:[1][2][3][4]

  • Cardiac auscultation can often detect signs of congenital or acquired heart disease in Noonan syndrome patients. The most common murmur is that of pulmonary stenosis, a harsh crescendo-decrescendo systolic ejection murmur hear best in the pulmonic area (the second intercostal space along the left sternal border). Significant splitting of S2 can also be heard that can be secondary to the RV outflow tract obstruction or and underlying ASD. Another possible finding is a systolic ejection murmur at the aortic site without radiation to the carotids that decreases with squatting or handgrip maneuvers signifying the possible presence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
  • Assessment of auditory acuity is important since some form of loss of hearing can be seen in some patients (10% have low frequency deficits, 25% have high frequency deficits)
  • Signs of heart failure including pulmonary congestion, increased JVD, and edema should be noted.
  • Facial features are notable for large head with tall and prominent forehead, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, and wide and depressed nasal root.
  • Skin abnormalities including multiple pigmented nevi, café au lait spots, keratosis pilaris of upper arms and face and lentigines can be seen although not very common.
  • Signs of lymphatic obstruction are very common especially neck webbing with prominence of the trapezius.
  • Short stature is common in Noonan syndrome especially during puberty since pubertal growth is usually delayed. However, adult height can often be normal.
  • Delayed onset of puberty can be seen in some patients with at least one third entering pubertal age after 13.
  • Assessment for cryptorchidism is important since at least 80% of males have unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism.
  • Signs of thrombocytopenia or coagulation defects can be seen in about half of the patients presenting with easy bruising or bleeding.
  • Peripheral lymphedema can be seen in 20% of patients.
  • Skeletal abnormalities are detectable in many patients with Noonan syndrome particularly spiny deformities and chest deformities like pectus carinatum and pectus excavatum usually also associated with widely spaced nipples.
  • Ocular findings are found in 95% of patients including ptosis, strabismus, amblyopia, nystagmus, refractive errors, and cataracts.


  1. "Erratum". Therap Adv Gastroenterol. 5 (5): 371. 2012. doi:10.1177/1756283X10363751. PMC 3437532. PMID 22973420.
  2. Mendez HM, Opitz JM (1985). "Noonan syndrome: a review". Am J Med Genet. 21 (3): 493–506. doi:10.1002/ajmg.1320210312. PMID 3895929.
  3. Ranke MB, Heidemann P, Knupfer C, Enders H, Schmaltz AA, Bierich JA (1988). "Noonan syndrome: growth and clinical manifestations in 144 cases". Eur J Ped. 148 (3): 220–7. doi:10.1007/BF00441408. line feed character in |author= at position 10 (help)
  4. Roberts AE, Allanson JE, Tartaglia M, Gelb BD (2013). "Noonan syndrome". Lancet. 381 (9863): 333–42. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61023-X. PMID 23312968.

Template:Phakomatoses and other congenital malformations not elsewhere classified

Template:WikiDoc Sources