Nephrotic syndrome causes
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Nephrotic syndrome can occur primarily or due to systemic diseases. The most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in children is minimal change disease. The most common primary causes in adults are focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), minimal change disease, and membranous nephropathy. Approximately 30 percent of adults have secondary nephrotic syndrome due to diabetes mellitus, SLE, or amyloidosis. The most common cause of secondary nephrotic syndrome in adults is diabetes mellitus.
Nephrotic syndrome can occur primarily or due to systemic diseases. The most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in children is minimal change disease. The most common primary causes in adults are focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), minimal change disease, and membranous nephropathy. Approximately 30 percent of adults have secondary nephrotic syndrome due to diabetes mellitus, SLE, or amyloidosis.
Primary renal disorders, such as primary glomerulonephritides, may cause primary nephrotic syndrome. Differentiation between different types of glomerular diseases is often made by clinical suspicion and by renal biopsy, which includes light microscopy, immunofluorescence, and ideally electron microscopy.
Secondary causes of renal disorders cause secondary nephrotic syndrome. The most common cause of secondary nephrotic syndrome in adults is diabetes mellitus. Shown below is a table of the causes of nephrotic syndrome by age group.
Common Causes of Nephrotic Syndrome by Age
|Age (Years)||Cause of Nephrotic Syndrome|
Adapted from Rose BD. Pathophysiology of renal diseases, ed. 2. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1987,p. 167
- Agalsidase beta
- Certolizumab pegol
- Coagulation factor IX
- Sodium aurothiomalate
Causes by Organ System
|Dental||No underlying causes|
|Drug Side Effect||Agalsidase beta, Certolizumab pegol, Coagulation factor IX, Olsalazine, Sodium aurothiomalate, Trimethadione, Ziv-aflibercept , Interferon, lithium, NSAID, Penicillamine, Probenecid, Sorafenib|
|Ear Nose Throat||No underlying causes|
|Endocrine||Diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease|
|Environmental||No underlying causes|
|Gastroenterologic||No underlying causes|
|Genetic||No underlying causes|
|Hematologic||Castleman's disease, sickle cell anemia|
|Iatrogenic||No underlying causes|
|Infectious Disease||HIV, Infectious mononucleosis, malaria, streptococcal infection, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, viral hepatitis|
|Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic||No underlying causes|
|Neurologic||No underlying causes|
|Nutritional/Metabolic||No underlying causes|
|Oncologic||Leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma|
|Ophthalmologic||No underlying causes|
|Psychiatric||No underlying causes|
|Pulmonary||No underlying causes|
|Renal/Electrolyte||Amyloidosis, chronic interstitial nephritis, fabry's disease, Goodpasture's syndrome, oligomeganephronia, orthostatic proteinuria, renal vein thrombosis|
|Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy||Bee sting, food allergens, Graft vs. host disease, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, Kimura's disease, mixed connective tissue disease, polyarteritis nodosa, rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, Sjogren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis|
|Sexual||No underlying causes|
|Trauma||No underlying causes|
|Urologic||No underlying causes|
Causes of Secondary Causes in Alphabetical Order
- Adaptation to nephron reduction
- Bee sting
- Castleman's disease
- Chronic interstitial nephritis
- Diabetes mellitus
- Fabry's disease
- Food allergens
- Goodpasture's syndrome
- Graft vs. host disease
- Henoch-Schonlein purpura
- Infectious mononucleosis
- Kimura's disease
- Mixed connective tissue disease
- Multiple myeloma
- Orthostatic proteinuria
- Polyarteritis nodosa
- Renal vein thrombosis
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Sickle cell anemia
- Sjogren's syndrome
- Streptococcal Infection
- Systemic lupus erythematosus
- Thyroid disease
- Viral hepatitis
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