Myelodysplastic syndrome differential diagnosis

Jump to navigation Jump to search
Home logo1.png

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1];Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Hannan Javed, M.D.[2] Zahir Ali Shaikh, MD[3] Nawal Muazam M.D.[4] Amandeep Singh M.D.[5]


Myelodysplastic syndrome must be differentiated from other diseases that cause anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia, such as: aplastic anemia, fanconi anemia, pure red cell aplasia, Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, parovirus B19 infection, and vitamin B12 defeciency

Differentiating Myelodysplastic Syndrome from other Diseases


EPO: Erythropoietin, FISH: Fluorescence in situ hybridization, Hb: Hemoglobin, LAD: Leukocyte alkaline dehydrgenase, LAP: Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase, LDH: Lactate dehydrogenase, LFTs: Liver function tests, NL: Normal, PCR: Polymerase chain reaction, Plt: Platelet, PUD: Peptic ulcer disease, RFTs: Renal function tests, WBCs: White blood cells.

Disease Clinical manifestations Diagnosis Other features
Symptoms Signs CBC & Peripheral smear Bone marrow biopsy Other investigations
WBCs Hb Plt
WBC Blasts Left
Myelodysplastic syndromes
Variable -
  • Leukemia transformation
  • Acquired pseudo-Pelger-Huët anomaly
Chronic myeloid leukemia
<2% + NL
Polycythemia vera
  • Constitutional
NL or ↑ None - ↑ or ↓ NL or ↑ NL ↑↑ NL
  • Hypercellularity for age with tri-lineage growth
Primary myelofibrosis (PMF)[9][10][11][12] Erythroblasts - Absent NL NL
  • Variable with fibrosis or hypercellularity
Disease Symptoms Sign WBC Blasts Left
Hb Plt Bone marrow biopsy Other investigations Other features
Essential thrombocythemia (ET)[13][14][15]

NL or ↑



↓ or absent




  • Normal/Hypercellular
Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML)[16]
< 20% NL ↑↑
  • Overlapping of both, MDS and MPN
  • Absolute monocytosis > 1 × 109/L (defining feature)
  • MD-CMML:WBC ≤ 13 × 109/L (FAB)
  •  MP-CMML:WBC > 13 × 109/L (FAB)
Atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML), BCR-ABL1-[19][20] <20% + <2% of WBCs N/A N/A
Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML)[21][22] N/A N/A N/A
MDS/MPN with ring sideroblasts and thrombocytosis (MDS/MPN-RS-T)[23][24][25]
  • Variable
NL or ↑ NL - NL N/A N/A
Disease Symptoms Sign WBC Blasts Left
Hb Plt Bone marrow biopsy Other investigations Other features
Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL)[26][27][28] Minimal + NL NL NL
Chronic eosinophilic leukemia,
not otherwise specified
Present + ↑↑
Variable ± ↑ or ↓ ↑ or ↓ ↑ or ↓
  • Constitutional
None - NL NL ↓ or ↑
Myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms
with eosinophilia and rearrangement
or with PCM1-JAK2[37][38][39][40]
  • FISH shows t(8;13) and t(8;22)
Disease Symptoms Sign WBC Blasts Left
Hb Plt Bone marrow biopsy Other investigations Other features
B-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma[41][42] NL or ↑ >25% N/A ↑ or ↓ ↑ or ↓ ↑ or ↓
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
and related neoplasms[43][44]
NL or ↑ N/A ↑ or ↓ ↑ or ↓ ↑ or ↓

with dysplasia

Blastic plasmacytoid
dendritic cell neoplasm
Disease Symptoms Sign WBC Blasts Left
Hb Plt Bone marrow biopsy Other investigations Other features
T-lymphoblastic leukemia/
T-lymphoblastic leukemia/
>25% blasts (Leukemia)

<25% blasts (Lymphoma)

± ↑ or ↓ ↑ or ↓ ↑ or ↓
  • Hypercelluarity with increased T cells precursors
Provisional entity: Natural killer (NK) cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymph[52] ± ↑ or ↓ ↑ or ↓ ↑ or ↓
  • N/A
Provisional entity: Early T-cell precursor lymphoblastic leukemia[53][54] ± ↑ or ↓ ↑ or ↓ ↑ or ↓
  • Hypercelluarity with increased T cells precursors

Differentiating myelodysplastic syndrome from other causes of macrocytic anemia

Disease Genetics Clinical manifestation Lab findings
History Symptoms Signs Hemolysis Intrinsic/Extrinsic Hb concentration MCV RDW Reticulocytosis Haptoglobin levels Hepcidin Iron studies Specific finding on blood smear
Serum iron Serum Tfr level Transferrin or TIBC Ferritin Transferrin saturation
Folate deficiency[55]
  • Impaired DNA synthesis
Anisochromic Macrocytic Nl Nl
Vitamin B12 deficiency[56] Anisochromic Macrocytic Nl Nl
Orotic aciduria[57]
  • Neurological manifestation
Anisochromic Macrocytic Nl Nl NA
Fanconi anemia[58]
  • Significant for bilateral short thumbs
Anisochromic Macrocytic Nl Nl
Disease Genetics History Symptoms Signs Hemolysis Intrinsic/Extrinsic Hb concentration MCV RDW Reticulocytosis Haptoglobin levels Hepcidin Serum iron Serum Tfr level IBC Ferritin Transferrin saturation Specific finding on blood smear
Diamond-Blackfan anemia[59] Mutations in:
  • RPL5
  • RPL11
  • RPL35A
  • RPS7
  • RPS10
  • RPS17
  • RPS19
  • RPS24
  • RPS26
Anisochromic Macrocytic Nl Nl Nl NA
Liver disease[60]
  • Hepatitis
  • Binge drinking
  • Gall bladder disease
Anisochromic Macrocytic Nl Nl
Alcoholism[61] Anisochromic Macrocytic Nl Nl
Disease Genetics History Symptoms Signs Hemolysis Intrinsic/Extrinsic Hb concentration MCV RDW Reticulocytosis Haptoglobin levels Hepcidin Serum iron Serum Tfr level IBC Ferritin Transferrin saturation Specific finding on blood smear

Differentiating myelodysplastic syndrome from other causes of thrombocytopenia

Condition Etiology Mechanism Inherited Acquried Clinical manifestations Para−clinical findings Gold standard Associated findings
Demography History Symptoms Signs
Lab Findings
Fever Rash Bleeding BP Splenomegaly Jaundice Other CBC PBS Bone marrow exam Other
Decreased platelet production Platelet destruction in blood Platelet destruction in spleen Plt HB WBC
Bone marrow disorders Myelodysplastic syndromes[62]
  • Unknown
  • Mutation
+ ± + Elderly Exposure to + Petechiae, purpura, diffuse erythematous rash + Nl + + Nl Bone marrow examination + clinical manifestation
Aplastic anemia[63] + ± ± Biphasic (the young and the elderly) + Nl
  • Elevated PT/PTT
Bone marrow examination +

laboratory findings

Acute leukemia[64][65] + + ± ± AML in adults
  • Exposure to chemicals
  • Radiation
  • Pre-existent blood disorders
± Petechiae + Nl ±
  • Blast cells
Bone marrow examination
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)[66]
  • Mutations
+ + + Any age

(usually younger adults)

Nl ↓/Nl ↓/Nl
  • Hypocellular marrow in certain stages of the disease
Flow cytometry
Condition Etiology Decreased platelet production Platelet destruction in blood Platelet destruction in spleen Inherited Acquried Demography History Fever Rash Bleeding BP Splenomegaly Jaundice Other signs Plt HB WBC PBS Bone marrow exam UA Gold standard Associated findings
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)[67]
  • Deficiency of, or antibodies to, the metalloprotease ADAMTS13
+ ± + Any age
  • Neurologic manifestations
  • Fatigue due to anemia
+ Petechiae Not common Nl or ↑ + Nl

or ↑

  • Fragmented RBCs
NA Laboratory findings
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)[68] + ± + Children
  • Exposure to contaminated water or milk
  • Consuming undercooked ground beef
+ Petechiae + Nl

or ↑

  • Fragmented RBCs
NA Laboratory findings
  • Overstimulation of the coagulation system
+ + + Any age + + + + ↓↓ Clinical manifestation + laboratory findings
Nutrient deficiencies Folate, vitamin B12, copper deficiencies[71][72]
  • Decreased platelet production
+ + Any age
  • Malnutrition
  • Alcohol use
Nl Nl Nl Laboratory findings
Condition Etiology Decreased platelet production Platelet destruction in blood Platelet destruction in spleen Inherited Acquried Demography History Fever Rash Bleeding BP Splenomegaly Jaundice Other signs Plt HB WBC PBS Bone marrow exam UA Gold standard Associated findings
Congenital platelet disorders[73][74][75] MYH9-related disorders[76] + + Any age, very rare
  • Positive family history
+ Nl Nl
  • Döhle body-like inclusions in peripheral blood neutrophils
NA Nl Genetic study
Bernard-Soulier syndrome[77]
  • Absence of Gp Ib-IX-V
+ + Children, rare
  • Positive family history
+ Nl Nl Nl Nl Flow cytometry
Gray platelet syndrome[78] + + Rare
  • Positive family history


Nl + Nl Nl Nl Genetic study
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome[79] + + Rare
  • Positive family history
+ Nl Bloody diarrhea Nl Nl Nl Genetic study
Thrombocytopenia with absent radius (TAR) syndrome[80] + + Children
  • Positive family history
+ + Nl Nl Nl or ↑ Nl Evidence of absent radius


Laboratory findings

  • Cow's milk allergy
  • Various other anomalies
Fechtner syndrome[81]
  • Mutation of chromosome 22q11-13
+ + Children
  • Positive family history


+ Mucocutaneous Nl
  • Hearing loss
  • Eye abnormalities
Nl Nl or ↑ NA Clinical manifestation + genetic study
Von Willebrand disease[82]
  • VWF deficiency/dysfunction
+ + Rarely More common with O blood type
  • Positive family history
+ Nl/ ↓ Nl/↓ Nl NA Laboratory findings
  • Lifelong bleeding disorder
Condition Etiology Decreased platelet production Platelet destruction in blood Platelet destruction in spleen Inherited Acquried Demography History Fever Rash Bleeding BP Splenomegaly Jaundice Other signs Plt HB WBC PBS Bone marrow exam UA Gold standard Associated findings
ITP[83] + + + Any age


+ Mucocutaneous Nl ↓↓↓ Nl Nl Nl Nl Diagnosis of exclusion
  • Spontaneous remission
Systemic lupus erythematosus[84] + + Young women, more prevalent in Africans and Asians + Malar rash, generalized maculopapular rash, discoid rash +


Nl or ↑ + + Clinical manifestation + serology
Antiphospholipid syndrome[85]
  • Autoantibody-mediated syndrome
+ + + Middle aged women, more in African American and Hispanic population Nl Nl Clinical manifestation + repeated positive tests of aPL
Felty's syndrome[86] + + ± + Rare, young women Nl +
  • Lymphadenopathy
Nl Nl Clinical manifestation
Condition Etiology Decreased platelet production Platelet destruction in blood Platelet destruction in spleen Inherited Acquried Demography History Fever Rash Bleeding BP Splenomegaly Jaundice Other signs Plt HB WBC PBS Bone marrow exam UA Gold standard Associated findings
Bacterial infections Sepsis[87] + + + Any + ± Nl to ↓ ± ↓/↑ Nl ↑↑ NA
  • Elevated PT/PTT
Clinical manifestation + culture
  • Associated with ↑ mortality
Helicobacter pylori[88]
  • Immune thrombocytopenia
+ + Any Nl Nl Nl NA Nl Clinical manifestation + culture
Tick-borne infection[89]
  • Immune thrombocytopenia
+ + Endemic area like China, Japan, and Korea
  • Being bitten by a tick
+ ± Nl to ↓ ± ± Nl NA PCR
Viral infections HIV[90]
  • Immune thrombocytopenia
+ + + + Any
  • High risk behaviors
  • Close contact
+ ± Nl to ↓ ± ± Isolation of HIV
Other viruses such as rubella, mumps, varicella, parvovirus, hepatitis C, & Epstein-Barr virus[91]
  • Immune thrombocytopenia
+ + Any
  • High risk behaviors
  • Close contact
+ Nl ± ± Clinical manifestation + lab tests
Parasitic infections Malaria[92]
  • Unknown
  • Immune thrombocytopenia
+ + Endemic area
  • Being bitten by a mosquito
+ ± Nl to ↓ ± ± Clinical manifestation + microscopic examination of blood smear
  • Unknown
  • Immune thrombocytopenia
+ + Rare + ± Nl to ↓ ± ± Clinical manifestation + microscopic examination of blood smear
Condition Etiology Decreased platelet production Platelet destruction in blood Platelet destruction in spleen Inherited Acquried Demography History Fever Rash Bleeding BP Splenomegaly Jaundice Other signs Plt HB WBC PBS Bone marrow exam UA Gold standard Associated findings


  • Occurrence of drug-dependent, platelet-reactive antibodies
+ + + Any
  • Drug ingestion or injection
Nl ↓↓ Nl NA Nl Clinical manifestation + exclusion of the other causes NA
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia[95]
  • Anti-heparin/PF4 antibody
+ + Any
  • Heparin injection
  • Necrotic skin lesions
Cytotoxic chemotherapy[96] + + Patients with malignancy
  • Drug ingestion or injection
  • Cancer
  • Megakaryocytic hypoplasia or aplasia
Clinical manifestation + exclusion of the other causes
Radiation therapy[97] + + Patients with malignancy + Nl
  • Megakaryocytic hypoplasia or aplasia
Clinical manifestation + exclusion of the other causes
Chronic liver disease[98] + + Any + + + Nl NA Biopsy
Portal hypertension[99] + + Any + + + Nl NA
  • Elevated PT/PTT
Clinical manifestation
Condition Etiology Decreased platelet production Platelet destruction in blood Platelet destruction in spleen Inherited Acquried Demography History Fever Rash Bleeding BP Splenomegaly Jaundice Other signs Plt HB WBC PBS Bone marrow exam UA Gold standard Associated findings
Giant capillary hemangioma (Kasabach-Merritt syndrome)[100][101] + + Infants Intralesional bleeding Nl Visceral hemangiomas ↓↓ ↓↓ Nl Normocytic normochromic erythrocytes and markedly reduced platelets Normal erythropoiesis, myelopoiesis, and megakaryocytic hyperplasia Biopsy
  • Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma
  • Tufted angioma
Cardiopulmonary bypass[102] + + Elderly + Nl or ↑ Nl Normocytic normochromic erythrocytes and markedly reduced platelets NA Clinical manifestation
Alcohol[103] + + + Any Nl + + Cytopenia, macrocytosis Cytopenia, macrocytosis
  • Elevated PT/PTT
Clinical manifestation
Post-transfusion purpura[104][105] + + Women + ↓↓↓ Nl Nl NA Nl Positive circulating alloantibody to a common platelet antigen
  • Severe but rare reaction
Gestational thrombocytopenia[106]
  • Might be physiologic adaptation of pregnancy
+ Pregnant women
  • Positive history of mild thrombocytopenia
Nl Nl Nl Nl NA Nl Diagnosis of exclusion
  • Self-limited condition
HELLP syndrome[107][108]
  • Unknown
+ + Pregnant > 25 years + + Nl Schistocytes NA Proteinuria Lab abnormalities
Idiopathic cyclic thrombocytopenia[109] + + + Females with the median age of onset 35 years
  • Misdiagnosed as ITP with uniformly poor responses
Minor mucocutaneous bleeding Nl Nl Nl Reduced platelets and megakaryocytes Megakaryocytic hypoplasia or aplasia Nl Diagnosis of exclusion
Pseudothrombocytopenia[110] + Rare Collected sample in EDTA anticoagulant Nl Nl Nl Low platelet count and platelet clumps Low platelet count and platelet clumps Nl Repeat collecting sample in a heparin tube Nl
Condition Etiology Decreased platelet production Platelet destruction in blood Platelet destruction in spleen Inherited Acquried Demography History Fever Rash Bleeding BP Splenomegaly Jaundice Other signs Plt HB WBC PBS Bone marrow exam UA Gold standard Associated findings


  1. Germing U, Kobbe G, Haas R, Gattermann N (November 2013). "Myelodysplastic syndromes: diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment". Dtsch Arztebl Int. 110 (46): 783–90. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2013.0783. PMC 3855821. PMID 24300826.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Gangat N, Patnaik MM, Tefferi A (January 2016). "Myelodysplastic syndromes: Contemporary review and how we treat". Am. J. Hematol. 91 (1): 76–89. doi:10.1002/ajh.24253. PMID 26769228.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Savage DG, Szydlo RM, Goldman JM (January 1997). "Clinical features at diagnosis in 430 patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia seen at a referral centre over a 16-year period". Br. J. Haematol. 96 (1): 111–6. PMID 9012696.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Thompson PA, Kantarjian HM, Cortes JE (October 2015). "Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in 2015". Mayo Clin. Proc. 90 (10): 1440–54. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2015.08.010. PMC 5656269. PMID 26434969.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Vannucchi AM, Guglielmelli P, Tefferi A (March 2018). "Polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia: algorithmic approach". Curr. Opin. Hematol. 25 (2): 112–119. doi:10.1097/MOH.0000000000000402. PMID 29194068.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Pillai AA, Babiker HM. PMID 30252337. Missing or empty |title= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Tefferi A, Barbui T (January 2019). "Polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia: 2019 update on diagnosis, risk-stratification and management". Am. J. Hematol. 94 (1): 133–143. doi:10.1002/ajh.25303. PMID 30281843.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Rumi E, Cazzola M (February 2017). "Diagnosis, risk stratification, and response evaluation in classical myeloproliferative neoplasms". Blood. 129 (6): 680–692. doi:10.1182/blood-2016-10-695957. PMC 5335805. PMID 28028026.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Cervantes F, Correa JG, Hernandez-Boluda JC (May 2016). "Alleviating anemia and thrombocytopenia in myelofibrosis patients". Expert Rev Hematol. 9 (5): 489–96. doi:10.1586/17474086.2016.1154452. PMID 26891375.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Hoffman, Ronald (2018). Hematology : basic principles and practice. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. ISBN 9780323357623.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Michiels JJ, Bernema Z, Van Bockstaele D, De Raeve H, Schroyens W (March 2007). "Current diagnostic criteria for the chronic myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis (CIMF)". Pathol. Biol. 55 (2): 92–104. doi:10.1016/j.patbio.2006.06.002. PMID 16919893.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Hoffman, Ronald (2018). Hematology : basic principles and practice. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. ISBN 9780323357623.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Schmoldt A, Benthe HF, Haberland G (1975). "Digitoxin metabolism by rat liver microsomes". Biochem Pharmacol. 24 (17): 1639–41. PMID Check |pmid= value (help).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Daniel A. Arber, Attilio Orazi, Robert Hasserjian, Jurgen Thiele, Michael J. Borowitz, Michelle M. Le Beau, Clara D. Bloomfield, Mario Cazzola & James W. Vardiman (2016). "The 2016 revision to the World Health Organization classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia". Blood. 127 (20): 2391–2405. doi:10.1182/blood-2016-03-643544. PMID 27069254. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. A. Tefferi, R. Fonseca, D. L. Pereira & H. C. Hoagland (2001). "A long-term retrospective study of young women with essential thrombocythemia". Mayo Clinic proceedings. 76 (1): 22–28. doi:10.4065/76.1.22. PMID 11155408. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Patnaik MM, Tefferi A (June 2016). "Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia: 2016 update on diagnosis, risk stratification, and management". Am. J. Hematol. 91 (6): 631–42. doi:10.1002/ajh.24396. PMID 27185207.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. Parikh SA, Tefferi A (June 2012). "Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia: 2012 update on diagnosis, risk stratification, and management". Am. J. Hematol. 87 (6): 610–9. doi:10.1002/ajh.23203. PMID 22615103.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. Benton CB, Nazha A, Pemmaraju N, Garcia-Manero G (August 2015). "Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia: Forefront of the field in 2015". Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 95 (2): 222–42. doi:10.1016/j.critrevonc.2015.03.002. PMC 4859155. PMID 25869097.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. Dao KH, Tyner JW (2015). "What's different about atypical CML and chronic neutrophilic leukemia?". Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2015: 264–71. doi:10.1182/asheducation-2015.1.264. PMC 5266507. PMID 26637732.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Muramatsu H, Makishima H, Maciejewski JP (February 2012). "Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and atypical chronic myeloid leukemia: novel pathogenetic lesions". Semin. Oncol. 39 (1): 67–73. doi:10.1053/j.seminoncol.2011.11.004. PMC 3523950. PMID 22289493.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. Aricò M, Biondi A, Pui CH (July 1997). "Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia". Blood. 90 (2): 479–88. PMID 9226148.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. Hasle H (March 1994). "Myelodysplastic syndromes in childhood--classification, epidemiology, and treatment". Leuk. Lymphoma. 13 (1–2): 11–26. doi:10.3109/10428199409051647. PMID 8025513.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. Patnaik MM, Tefferi A (March 2017). "Refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS) and RARS with thrombocytosis (RARS-T): 2017 update on diagnosis, risk-stratification, and management". Am. J. Hematol. 92 (3): 297–310. doi:10.1002/ajh.24637. PMID 28188970.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. Alshaban A, Padilla O, Philipovskiy A, Corral J, McAlice M, Gaur S (2018). "Lenalidomide induced durable remission in a patient with MDS/MPN-with ring sideroblasts and thrombocytosis with associated 5q- syndrome". Leuk Res Rep. 10: 37–40. doi:10.1016/j.lrr.2018.08.001. PMID 30186759.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. Bouchla A, Papageorgiou SG, Tsakiraki Z, Glezou E, Pavlidis G, Stavroulaki G, Bazani E, Foukas P, Pappa V (2018). "Plasmablastic Lymphoma in an Immunocompetent Patient with MDS/MPN with Ring Sideroblasts and Thrombocytosis-A Case Report". Case Rep Hematol. 2018: 2525070. doi:10.1155/2018/2525070. PMC 6247723. PMID 30524760.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. Szuber N, Tefferi A (February 2018). "Chronic neutrophilic leukemia: new science and new diagnostic criteria". Blood Cancer J. 8 (2): 19. doi:10.1038/s41408-018-0049-8. PMC 5811432. PMID 29440636.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. Maxson JE, Tyner JW (February 2017). "Genomics of chronic neutrophilic leukemia". Blood. 129 (6): 715–722. doi:10.1182/blood-2016-10-695981. PMC 5301820. PMID 28028025.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. Menezes J, Cigudosa JC (2015). "Chronic neutrophilic leukemia: a clinical perspective". Onco Targets Ther. 8: 2383–90. doi:10.2147/OTT.S49688. PMC 4562747. PMID 26366092.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. Vidyadharan S, Joseph B, Nair SP (2016). "Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia Presenting Predominantly with Cutaneous Manifestations". Indian J Dermatol. 61 (4): 437–9. doi:10.4103/0019-5154.185716. PMC 4966405. PMID 27512192.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. Hofmans M, Delie A, Vandepoele K, Van Roy N, Van der Meulen J, Philippé J, Moors I (2018). "A case of chronic eosinophilic leukemia with secondary transformation to acute myeloid leukemia". Leuk Res Rep. 9: 45–47. doi:10.1016/j.lrr.2018.04.001. PMC 5993353. PMID 29892549.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. Yamada Y, Rothenberg ME, Cancelas JA (2006). "Current concepts on the pathogenesis of the hypereosinophilic syndrome/chronic eosinophilic leukemia". Transl Oncogenomics. 1: 53–63. PMC 3642145. PMID 23662039.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. Kim TH, Gu HJ, Lee WI, Lee J, Yoon HJ, Park TS (September 2016). "Chronic eosinophilic leukemia with FIP1L1-PDGFRA rearrangement". Blood Res. 51 (3): 204–206. doi:10.5045/br.2016.51.3.204. PMID 27722133.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. Carter MC, Metcalfe DD, Komarow HD (February 2014). "Mastocytosis". Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 34 (1): 181–96. doi:10.1016/j.iac.2013.09.001. PMC 3863935. PMID 24262698.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. Macri A, Cook C. PMID 29494109. Missing or empty |title= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. Lladó AC, Mihon CE, Silva M, Galzerano A (2014). "Systemic mastocytosis - a diagnostic challenge". Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter. 36 (3): 226–9. doi:10.1016/j.bjhh.2014.03.003. PMC 4109736. PMID 25031064.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  36. Valent P, Akin C, Metcalfe DD (March 2017). "Mastocytosis: 2016 updated WHO classification and novel emerging treatment concepts". Blood. 129 (11): 1420–1427. doi:10.1182/blood-2016-09-731893. PMC 5356454. PMID 28031180.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. Kumar, Kirthi R.; Chen, Weina; Koduru, Prasad R.; Luu, Hung S. (2015). "Myeloid and Lymphoid Neoplasm With Abnormalities of FGFR1 Presenting With Trilineage Blasts and RUNX1 Rearrangement". American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 143 (5): 738–748. doi:10.1309/AJCPUD6W1JLQQMNA. ISSN 1943-7722.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. Paolo Strati, Guilin Tang, Dzifa Y. Duose, Saradhi Mallampati, Rajyalakshmi Luthra, Keyur P. Patel, Mohammad Hussaini, Abu-Sayeef Mirza, Rami S. Komrokji, Stephen Oh, John Mascarenhas, Vesna Najfeld, Vivek Subbiah, Hagop Kantarjian, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Srdan Verstovsek & Naval Daver (2018). "Myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with FGFR1 rearrangement". Leukemia & lymphoma. 59 (7): 1672–1676. doi:10.1080/10428194.2017.1397663. PMID 29119847. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. Ximena Montenegro-Garreaud, Roberto N. Miranda, Alexandra Reynolds, Guilin Tang, Sa A. Wang, Mariko Yabe, Wei Wang, Lianghua Fang, Carlos E. Bueso-Ramos, Pei Lin, L. Jeffrey Medeiros & Xinyan Lu (2017). "Myeloproliferative neoplasms with t(8;22)(p11.2;q11.2)/BCR-FGFR1: a meta-analysis of 20 cases shows cytogenetic progression with B-lymphoid blast phase". Human pathology. 65: 147–156. doi:10.1016/j.humpath.2017.05.008. PMID 28551329. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. Paola Villafuerte-Gutierrez, Montserrat Lopez Rubio, Pilar Herrera & Eva Arranz (2018). "A Case of Myeloproliferative Neoplasm with BCR-FGFR1 Rearrangement: Favorable Outcome after Haploidentical Allogeneic Transplantation". Case reports in hematology. 2018: 5724960. doi:10.1155/2018/5724960. PMID 30647980.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  41. Kamiya-Matsuoka C, Garciarena P, Amin HM, Tremont-Lukats IW, de Groot JF (December 2013). "B lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma presenting as seventh cranial nerve palsy". Neurol Clin Pract. 3 (6): 532–534. doi:10.1212/CPJ.0b013e3182a78ef0. PMC 6082360. PMID 30107017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. Zhang X, Rastogi P, Shah B, Zhang L (September 2017). "B lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma: new insights into genetics, molecular aberrations, subclassification and targeted therapy". Oncotarget. 8 (39): 66728–66741. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.19271. PMC 5630450. PMID 29029550.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  43. Islam A, Catovsky D, Goldman JM, Galton DA (September 1985). "Bone marrow biopsy changes in acute myeloid leukaemia. I: Observations before chemotherapy". Histopathology. 9 (9): 939–57. PMID 3864727.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  44. Orazi A (2007). "Histopathology in the diagnosis and classification of acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative diseases". Pathobiology. 74 (2): 97–114. doi:10.1159/000101709. PMID 17587881.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  45. F. Julia, T. Petrella, M. Beylot-Barry, M. Bagot, D. Lipsker, L. Machet, P. Joly, O. Dereure, M. Wetterwald, M. d'Incan, F. Grange, J. Cornillon, G. Tertian, E. Maubec, P. Saiag, S. Barete, I. Templier, F. Aubin & S. Dalle (2013). "Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm: clinical features in 90 patients". The British journal of dermatology. 169 (3): 579–586. doi:10.1111/bjd.12412. PMID 23646868. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  46. Livio Pagano, Caterina Giovanna Valentini, Alessandro Pulsoni, Simona Fisogni, Paola Carluccio, Francesco Mannelli, Monia Lunghi, Gianmatteo Pica, Francesco Onida, Chiara Cattaneo, Pier Paolo Piccaluga, Eros Di Bona, Elisabetta Todisco, Pellegrino Musto, Antonio Spadea, Alfonso D'Arco, Stefano Pileri, Giuseppe Leone, Sergio Amadori & Fabio Facchetti (2013). "Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm with leukemic presentation: an Italian multicenter study". Haematologica. 98 (2): 239–246. doi:10.3324/haematol.2012.072645. PMID 23065521. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. Joseph D. Khoury (2018). "Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm". Current hematologic malignancy reports. 13 (6): 477–483. doi:10.1007/s11899-018-0489-z. PMID 30350260. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  48. Shinichiro Sukegawa, Mamiko Sakata-Yanagimoto, Ryota Matsuoka, Haruka Momose, Yusuke Kiyoki, Masayuki Noguchi, Naoya Nakamura, Rei Watanabe, Manabu Fujimoto, Yasuhisa Yokoyama, Hidekazu Nishikii, Takayasu Kato, Manabu Kusakabe, Naoki Kurita, Naoshi Obara, Yuichi Hasegawa & Shigeru Chiba (2018). "[Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm accompanied by chronic myelomonocytic leukemia successfully treated with azacitidine]". [[[Rinsho ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology]]. 59 (12): 2567–2573. doi:10.11406/rinketsu.59.2567. PMID 30626790.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  49. You MJ, Medeiros LJ, Hsi ED (September 2015). "T-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma". Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 144 (3): 411–22. doi:10.1309/AJCPMF03LVSBLHPJ. PMID 26276771.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  50. Patel KJ, Latif SU, de Calaca WM (March 2009). "An unusual presentation of precursor T cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma with cholestatic jaundice: case report". J Hematol Oncol. 2: 12. doi:10.1186/1756-8722-2-12. PMC 2663564. PMID 19284608.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  51. Elreda L, Sandhu M, Sun X, Bekele W, Cohen AJ, Shah M (2014). "T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma: relapse 16 years after first remission". Case Rep Hematol. 2014: 359158. doi:10.1155/2014/359158. PMC 4005062. PMID 24822133.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  52. Sedick Q, Alotaibi S, Alshieban S, Naheet KB, Elyamany G (2017). "Natural Killer Cell Lymphoblastic Leukaemia/Lymphoma: Case Report and Review of the Recent Literature". Case Rep Oncol. 10 (2): 588–595. doi:10.1159/000477843. PMID 28868017.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. Jain N, Lamb AV, O'Brien S, Ravandi F, Konopleva M, Jabbour E, Zuo Z, Jorgensen J, Lin P, Pierce S, Thomas D, Rytting M, Borthakur G, Kadia T, Cortes J, Kantarjian HM, Khoury JD (April 2016). "Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (ETP-ALL/LBL) in adolescents and adults: a high-risk subtype". Blood. 127 (15): 1863–9. doi:10.1182/blood-2015-08-661702. PMC 4915808. PMID 26747249.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  54. Haydu JE, Ferrando AA (July 2013). "Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia". Curr. Opin. Hematol. 20 (4): 369–73. doi:10.1097/MOH.0b013e3283623c61. PMC 3886681. PMID 23695450.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  55. Koike H, Takahashi M, Ohyama K, Hashimoto R, Kawagashira Y, Iijima M, Katsuno M, Doi H, Tanaka F, Sobue G (March 2015). "Clinicopathologic features of folate-deficiency neuropathy". Neurology. 84 (10): 1026–33. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001343. PMID 25663227.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  56. Hunt A, Harrington D, Robinson S (September 2014). "Vitamin B12 deficiency". BMJ. 349: g5226. PMID 25189324.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  57. Grohmann K, Lauffer H, Lauenstein P, Hoffmann GF, Seidlitz G (April 2015). "Hereditary orotic aciduria with epilepsy and without megaloblastic anemia". Neuropediatrics. 46 (2): 123–5. doi:10.1055/s-0035-1547341. PMID 25757096.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  58. Alter BP (2014). "Fanconi anemia and the development of leukemia". Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 27 (3–4): 214–21. doi:10.1016/j.beha.2014.10.002. PMC 4254647. PMID 25455269.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  59. Vlachos A, Blanc L, Lipton JM (June 2014). "Diamond Blackfan anemia: a model for the translational approach to understanding human disease". Expert Rev Hematol. 7 (3): 359–72. doi:10.1586/17474086.2014.897923. PMID 24665981.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  60. Marks PW (July 2013). "Hematologic manifestations of liver disease". Semin. Hematol. 50 (3): 216–21. doi:10.1053/j.seminhematol.2013.06.003. PMID 23953338.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  61. Yokoyama A, Yokoyama T, Brooks PJ, Mizukami T, Matsui T, Kimura M, Matsushita S, Higuchi S, Maruyama K (May 2014). "Macrocytosis, macrocytic anemia, and genetic polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 in Japanese alcoholic men". Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 38 (5): 1237–46. doi:10.1111/acer.12372. PMID 24588059.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  62. Natelson, Ethan A.; Pyatt, David (2013). "Acquired Myelodysplasia or Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Clearing the Fog". Advances in Hematology. 2013: 1–11. doi:10.1155/2013/309637. ISSN 1687-9104.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  63. Townsley, Danielle M.; Desmond, Ronan; Dunbar, Cynthia E.; Young, Neal S. (2013). "Pathophysiology and management of thrombocytopenia in bone marrow failure: possible clinical applications of TPO receptor agonists in aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndromes". International Journal of Hematology. 98 (1): 48–55. doi:10.1007/s12185-013-1352-6. ISSN 0925-5710.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  64. Oshima, Yasuo; Yuji, Koichiro; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Hinomura, Yasushi; Tojo, Arinobu (2013). "Association between Acute Myelogenous Leukemia and Thrombopoietin Receptor Agonists in Patients with Immune Thrombocytopenia". Internal Medicine. 52 (19): 2193–2201. doi:10.2169/internalmedicine.52.0324. ISSN 0918-2918.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  65. Oshima Y, Yuji K, Tanimoto T, Hinomura Y, Tojo A (2013). "Association between acute myelogenous leukemia and thrombopoietin receptor agonists in patients with immune thrombocytopenia". Intern. Med. 52 (19): 2193–201. PMID 24088751.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  66. Brodsky RA (2014). "Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria". Blood. 124 (18): 2804–11. doi:10.1182/blood-2014-02-522128. PMC 4215311. PMID 25237200.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  67. Noris M, Mescia F, Remuzzi G (November 2012). "STEC-HUS, atypical HUS and TTP are all diseases of complement activation". Nat Rev Nephrol. 8 (11): 622–33. doi:10.1038/nrneph.2012.195. PMID 22986360.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  68. Conway EM (October 2015). "HUS and the case for complement". Blood. 126 (18): 2085–90. doi:10.1182/blood-2015-03-569277. PMID 26396094.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  69. Schwameis M, Schörgenhofer C, Assinger A, Steiner MM, Jilma B (April 2015). "VWF excess and ADAMTS13 deficiency: a unifying pathomechanism linking inflammation to thrombosis in DIC, malaria, and TTP". Thromb. Haemost. 113 (4): 708–18. doi:10.1160/TH14-09-0731. PMC 4745134. PMID 25503977.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  70. Kitchens CS (2009). "Thrombocytopenia and thrombosis in disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)". Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program: 240–6. doi:10.1182/asheducation-2009.1.240. PMID 20008204.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  71. Clarke, V.; Weston-Smith, S. (2010). "Severe folate-deficiency pancytopenia". Case Reports. 2010 (oct18 2): bcr0320102851–bcr0320102851. doi:10.1136/bcr.03.2010.2851. ISSN 1757-790X.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  72. Blackmer AB, Bailey E (February 2013). "Management of copper deficiency in cholestatic infants: review of the literature and a case series". Nutr Clin Pract. 28 (1): 75–86. doi:10.1177/0884533612461531. PMID 23069991.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  73. Nurden AT, Freson K, Seligsohn U (2012). "Inherited platelet disorders". Haemophilia. 18 Suppl 4: 154–60. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2516.2012.02856.x. PMID 22726100.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  74. Balduini, Carlo L.; Savoia, Anna (2012). "Genetics of familial forms of thrombocytopenia". Human Genetics. 131 (12): 1821–1832. doi:10.1007/s00439-012-1215-x. ISSN 0340-6717.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  75. D'Andrea G, Chetta M, Margaglione M (2009). "Inherited platelet disorders: thrombocytopenias and thrombocytopathies". Blood Transfus. 7 (4): 278–92. doi:10.2450/2009.0078-08. PMC 2782805. PMID 20011639.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  76. Zhang S, Zhou X, Liu S, Bai T, Zhang Y, Wang J, Wang S, Zhang X, Wang B (2014). "MYH9-related disease: description of a large Chinese pedigree and a survey of reported mutations". Acta Haematol. 132 (2): 193–8. doi:10.1159/000356681. PMID 24643058.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  77. Berndt MC, Andrews RK (March 2011). "Bernard-Soulier syndrome". Haematologica. 96 (3): 355–9. doi:10.3324/haematol.2010.039883. PMC 3046265. PMID 21357716.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  78. Michelson AD (January 2013). "Gray platelet syndrome". Blood. 121 (2): 250. PMID 23427340.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  79. Candotti F (January 2018). "Clinical Manifestations and Pathophysiological Mechanisms of the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome". J. Clin. Immunol. 38 (1): 13–27. doi:10.1007/s10875-017-0453-z. PMID 29086100.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  80. Al-Qattan MM (November 2016). "The Pathogenesis of Radial Ray Deficiency in Thrombocytopenia-Absent Radius (TAR) Syndrome". J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 26 (11): 912–916. doi:2476 Check |doi= value (help). PMID 27981927.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  81. Toren A, Amariglio N, Rozenfeld-Granot G, Simon AJ, Brok-Simoni F, Pras E, Rechavi G (December 1999). "Genetic linkage of autosomal-dominant Alport syndrome with leukocyte inclusions and macrothrombocytopenia (Fechtner syndrome) to chromosome 22q11-13". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 65 (6): 1711–7. doi:10.1086/302654. PMC 1288382. PMID 10577925.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  82. Langer F, Obser T, Oyen F, Spath B, Holstein K, Greinacher A, White JG, Budde U, Bokemeyer C, Schneppenheim R (April 2014). "Characterisation of the p.A1461D mutation causing von Willebrand disease type 2B with severe thrombocytopenia, circulating giant platelets, and defective α-granule secretion". Thromb. Haemost. 111 (4): 777–9. doi:10.1160/TH13-06-0462. PMID 24337418.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  83. Zufferey, Anne; Kapur, Rick; Semple, John (2017). "Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Mechanisms in Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP)". Journal of Clinical Medicine. 6 (2): 16. doi:10.3390/jcm6020016. ISSN 2077-0383.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  84. Abu-Hishmeh M, Sattar A, Zarlasht F, Ramadan M, Abdel-Rahman A, Hinson S, Hwang C (October 2016). "Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Presenting as Refractory Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: A Diagnostic and Management Challenge. A Case Report and Concise Review of the Literature". Am J Case Rep. 17: 782–787. PMC 5083062. PMID 27777394.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  85. Artim-Esen, Bahar; Diz-Küçükkaya, Reyhan; İnanç, Murat (2015). "The Significance and Management of Thrombocytopenia in Antiphospholipid Syndrome". Current Rheumatology Reports. 17 (3). doi:10.1007/s11926-014-0494-8. ISSN 1523-3774.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  86. Chavalitdhamrong, Disaya; Molovic-Kokovic, Ana; Iliev, Andrey (2009). "Felty's Syndrome as an initial presentation of Rheumatoid Arthritis: a case report". Cases Journal. 2 (1): 206. doi:10.1186/1757-1626-2-206. ISSN 1757-1626.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  87. Wu, Qin; Ren, Jianan; Wu, Xiuwen; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Liu, Song; Wu, Yin; Hu, Dong; Zhao, Yunzhao; Li, Jieshou (2014). "Recombinant human thrombopoietin improves platelet counts and reduces platelet transfusion possibility among patients with severe sepsis and thrombocytopenia: A prospective study". Journal of Critical Care. 29 (3): 362–366. doi:10.1016/j.jcrc.2013.11.023. ISSN 0883-9441.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  88. Kuwana M (January 2014). "Helicobacter pylori-associated immune thrombocytopenia: clinical features and pathogenic mechanisms". World J. Gastroenterol. 20 (3): 714–23. doi:10.3748/wjg.v20.i3.714. PMC 3921481. PMID 24574745.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  89. Liu Q, He B, Huang SY, Wei F, Zhu XQ (August 2014). "Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, an emerging tick-borne zoonosis". Lancet Infect Dis. 14 (8): 763–772. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(14)70718-2. PMID 24837566.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  90. Borges ÁH, Lundgren JD, Mocroft A (July 2015). "Thrombocytopenia and cancer risk during HIV infection". AIDS. 29 (11): 1425–7. doi:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000744. PMID 26098601.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  91. Saeed M, Dabbagh O, Al-Muhaizae M, Dhalaan H, Chedrawi A (November 2014). "Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and thrombocytopenia following Epstein-Barr virus infection". J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 24 Suppl 3: S216–8. doi:11.2014/JCPSP.S216S218 Check |doi= value (help). PMID 25518779.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  92. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Giselle-Badillo A, Manrique-Castaño S, Yepes MC (2014). "Anemia and thrombocytopenia in Plasmodium vivax malaria is not unusual in patients from endemic and non-endemic settings". Travel Med Infect Dis. 12 (5): 549–50. doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2014.07.006. PMID 25131143.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  93. Nackos E, DeSancho M (March 2014). "Anemia and thrombocytopenia: diagnosis from the blood smear". Blood. 123 (12): 1783. PMID 24783256.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  94. Visentin GP, Liu CY (August 2007). "Drug-induced thrombocytopenia". Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am. 21 (4): 685–96, vi. doi:10.1016/j.hoc.2007.06.005. PMC 1993236. PMID 17666285.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  95. Lovecchio, F. (2014). "Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia". Clinical Toxicology. 52 (6): 579–583. doi:10.3109/15563650.2014.917181. ISSN 1556-3650.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  96. Parameswaran, R.; Lunning, M.; Mantha, S.; Devlin, S.; Hamilton, A.; Schwartz, G.; Soff, G. (2014). "Romiplostim for management of chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia". Supportive Care in Cancer. 22 (5): 1217–1222. doi:10.1007/s00520-013-2074-2. ISSN 0941-4355.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  97. Bercovitz RS, Josephson CD (2012). "Thrombocytopenia and bleeding in pediatric oncology patients". Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2012: 499–505. doi:10.1182/asheducation-2012.1.499. PMID 23233625.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  98. Loffredo, Lorenzo; Violi, Francesco (2018). "Thrombopoietin receptor agonists and risk of portal vein thrombosis in patients with liver disease and thrombocytopenia: A meta-analysis". Digestive and Liver Disease. doi:10.1016/j.dld.2018.06.005. ISSN 1590-8658.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  99. Jia YP, Lu Q, Gong S, Ma BY, Wen XR, Peng YL, Lin L, Chen HY, Qiu L, Luo Y (September 2007). "Postoperative complications in patients with portal vein thrombosis after liver transplantation: evaluation with Doppler ultrasonography". World J. Gastroenterol. 13 (34): 4636–40. PMC 4611842. PMID 17729421.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  100. Lewis D, Vaidya R. Kasabach Merritt Syndrome. [Updated 2018 Jul 27]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2018 Jan-. Available from:
  101. Vinod, Kolar Vishwanath; Johny, Joseph; Vadivelan, Mehalingam; Hamide, Abdoul (2017). "Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome in an adult". Turkish Journal of Hematology. doi:10.4274/tjh.2017.0429. ISSN 1300-7777.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  102. Ji, Sung-Mi; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Nam, Jae-Sik; Yun, Hye-Joo; Choi, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Ho; Choi, In-Cheol (2015). "Predictive value of rotational thromboelastometry during cardiopulmonary bypass for thrombocytopenia and hypofibrinogenemia after weaning of cardiopulmonary bypass". Korean Journal of Anesthesiology. 68 (3): 241. doi:10.4097/kjae.2015.68.3.241. ISSN 2005-6419.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  103. Latvala J, Parkkila S, Niemelä O (April 2004). "Excess alcohol consumption is common in patients with cytopenia: studies in blood and bone marrow cells". Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 28 (4): 619–24. PMID 15100613.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  104. McCrae, Keith R.; Herman, Jay H. (1996). "Posttransfusion purpura: Two unusual cases and a literature review". American Journal of Hematology. 52 (3): 205–211. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8652(199607)52:3<205::AID-AJH13>3.0.CO;2-E. ISSN 0361-8609.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  105. Pavenski, Katerina; Webert, Kathryn E.; Goldman, Mindy (2008). "Consequences of transfusion of platelet antibody: a case report and literature review". Transfusion. 48 (9): 1981–1989. doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2008.01796.x. ISSN 0041-1132.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  106. Reese, Jessica A.; Peck, Jennifer D.; Deschamps, David R.; McIntosh, Jennifer J.; Knudtson, Eric J.; Terrell, Deirdra R.; Vesely, Sara K.; George, James N. (2018). "Platelet Counts during Pregnancy". New England Journal of Medicine. 379 (1): 32–43. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1802897. ISSN 0028-4793.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  107. Barnhart, Lynette (2015). "HELLP Syndrome and the Effects on the Neonate". Neonatal Network. 34 (5): 269–273. doi:10.1891/0730-0832.34.5.269. ISSN 0730-0832.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  108. Haram, Kjell; Svendsen, Einar; Abildgaard, Ulrich (2009). "The HELLP syndrome: Clinical issues and management. A Review". BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 9 (1). doi:10.1186/1471-2393-9-8. ISSN 1471-2393.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  109. Go, Ronald S. (2005). "Idiopathic cyclic thrombocytopenia". Blood Reviews. 19 (1): 53–59. doi:10.1016/j.blre.2004.05.001. ISSN 0268-960X.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  110. Tan, Geok Chin; Stalling, Melissa; Dennis, Gretchen; Nunez, Maria; Kahwash, Samir B. (2016). "Pseudothrombocytopenia due to Platelet Clumping: A Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature". Case Reports in Hematology. 2016: 1–4. doi:10.1155/2016/3036476. ISSN 2090-6560.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>