Mitogen-activated protein kinase 9

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RefSeq (mRNA)



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Mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPK9 gene.[1]


The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase targets specific transcription factors, and thus mediates immediate-early gene expression in response to various cell stimuli. It is most closely related to MAPK8, both of which are involved in UV radiation-induced apoptosis, thought to be related to the cytochrome c-mediated cell death pathway. This gene and MAPK8 are also known as c-Jun N-terminal kinases. This kinase blocks the ubiquitination of tumor suppressor p53, and thus it increases the stability of p53 in nonstressed cells. Studies of this gene's mouse counterpart suggest a key role in T-cell differentiation. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported.[2]


Mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 has been shown to interact with:


  1. Kallunki T, Su B, Tsigelny I, Sluss HK, Dérijard B, Moore G, Davis R, Karin M (Dec 1994). "JNK2 contains a specificity-determining region responsible for efficient c-Jun binding and phosphorylation". Genes & Development. 8 (24): 2996–3007. doi:10.1101/gad.8.24.2996. PMID 8001819.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "Entrez Gene: MAPK9 mitogen-activated protein kinase 9".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Saleem A, Datta R, Yuan ZM, Kharbanda S, Kufe D (Dec 1995). "Involvement of stress-activated protein kinase in the cellular response to 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine and other DNA-damaging agents". Cell Growth & Differentiation. 6 (12): 1651–8. PMID 9019171.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Kharbanda S, Saleem A, Shafman T, Emoto Y, Taneja N, Rubin E, Weichselbaum R, Woodgett J, Avruch J, Kyriakis J (Aug 1995). "Ionizing radiation stimulates a Grb2-mediated association of the stress-activated protein kinase with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 270 (32): 18871–4. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.32.18871. PMID 7642542.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. 5.0 5.1 Yasuda J, Whitmarsh AJ, Cavanagh J, Sharma M, Davis RJ (Oct 1999). "The JIP group of mitogen-activated protein kinase scaffold proteins". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 19 (10): 7245–54. doi:10.1128/mcb.19.10.7245. PMC 84717. PMID 10490659.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Whitmarsh AJ, Cavanagh J, Tournier C, Yasuda J, Davis RJ (Sep 1998). "A mammalian scaffold complex that selectively mediates MAP kinase activation". Science. 281 (5383): 1671–4. doi:10.1126/science.281.5383.1671. PMID 9733513.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Ito M, Yoshioka K, Akechi M, Yamashita S, Takamatsu N, Sugiyama K, Hibi M, Nakabeppu Y, Shiba T, Yamamoto KI (Nov 1999). "JSAP1, a novel jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)-binding protein that functions as a Scaffold factor in the JNK signaling pathway". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 19 (11): 7539–48. doi:10.1128/mcb.19.11.7539. PMC 84763. PMID 10523642.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Kelkar N, Gupta S, Dickens M, Davis RJ (Feb 2000). "Interaction of a mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling module with the neuronal protein JIP3". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 20 (3): 1030–43. doi:10.1128/mcb.20.3.1030-1043.2000. PMC 85220. PMID 10629060.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Hu MC, Qiu WR, Wang YP (Nov 1997). "JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3 are p53 N-terminal serine 34 kinases". Oncogene. 15 (19): 2277–87. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201401. PMID 9393873.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Lin Y, Khokhlatchev A, Figeys D, Avruch J (Dec 2002). "Death-associated protein 4 binds MST1 and augments MST1-induced apoptosis". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (50): 47991–8001. doi:10.1074/jbc.M202630200. PMID 12384512.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Maekawa M, Nishida E, Tanoue T (Oct 2002). "Identification of the Anti-proliferative protein Tob as a MAPK substrate". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (40): 37783–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M204506200. PMID 12151396.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Further reading

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  • Davis RJ (Oct 2000). "Signal transduction by the JNK group of MAP kinases". Cell. 103 (2): 239–52. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)00116-1. PMID 11057897.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Freedman BD, Liu QH, Del Corno M, Collman RG (2004). "HIV-1 gp120 chemokine receptor-mediated signaling in human macrophages". Immunologic Research. 27 (2–3): 261–76. doi:10.1385/IR:27:2-3:261. PMID 12857973.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lee C, Liu QH, Tomkowicz B, Yi Y, Freedman BD, Collman RG (Nov 2003). "Macrophage activation through CCR5- and CXCR4-mediated gp120-elicited signaling pathways". Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 74 (5): 676–82. doi:10.1189/jlb.0503206. PMID 12960231.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Denys H, Desmet R, Stragier M, Vergison R, Lemahieu SF (1978). "Cystitis emphysematosa". Acta Urologica Belgica. 45 (4): 327–31. PMID 602896.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Dawson SJ, White LA (May 1992). "Treatment of Haemophilus aphrophilus endocarditis with ciprofloxacin". The Journal of Infection. 24 (3): 317–20. doi:10.1016/S0163-4453(05)80037-4. PMID 1602151.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Livingstone C, Patel G, Jones N (Apr 1995). "ATF-2 contains a phosphorylation-dependent transcriptional activation domain". The EMBO Journal. 14 (8): 1785–97. PMC 398272. PMID 7737129.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Sluss HK, Barrett T, Dérijard B, Davis RJ (Dec 1994). "Signal transduction by tumor necrosis factor mediated by JNK protein kinases". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 14 (12): 8376–84. doi:10.1128/mcb.14.12.8376. PMC 359376. PMID 7969172.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Gille H, Strahl T, Shaw PE (Oct 1995). "Activation of ternary complex factor Elk-1 by stress-activated protein kinases". Current Biology. 5 (10): 1191–200. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(95)00235-1. PMID 8548291.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Chu Y, Solski PA, Khosravi-Far R, Der CJ, Kelly K (Mar 1996). "The mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatases PAC1, MKP-1, and MKP-2 have unique substrate specificities and reduced activity in vivo toward the ERK2 sevenmaker mutation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (11): 6497–501. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.11.6497. PMID 8626452.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Bocco JL, Bahr A, Goetz J, Hauss C, Kallunki T, Kedinger C, Chatton B (May 1996). "In vivo association of ATFa with JNK/SAP kinase activities". Oncogene. 12 (9): 1971–80. PMID 8649858.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Gupta S, Barrett T, Whitmarsh AJ, Cavanagh J, Sluss HK, Dérijard B, Davis RJ (Jun 1996). "Selective interaction of JNK protein kinase isoforms with transcription factors". The EMBO Journal. 15 (11): 2760–70. PMC 450211. PMID 8654373.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Kallunki T, Deng T, Hibi M, Karin M (Nov 1996). "c-Jun can recruit JNK to phosphorylate dimerization partners via specific docking interactions". Cell. 87 (5): 929–39. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81999-6. PMID 8945519.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Jabado N, Pallier A, Jauliac S, Fischer A, Hivroz C (Feb 1997). "gp160 of HIV or anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody ligation of CD4 induces inhibition of JNK and ERK-2 activities in human peripheral CD4+ T lymphocytes". European Journal of Immunology. 27 (2): 397–404. doi:10.1002/eji.1830270209. PMID 9045910.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Janknecht R, Hunter T (Apr 1997). "Convergence of MAP kinase pathways on the ternary complex factor Sap-1a". The EMBO Journal. 16 (7): 1620–7. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.7.1620. PMC 1169766. PMID 9130707.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fukunaga R, Hunter T (Apr 1997). "MNK1, a new MAP kinase-activated protein kinase, isolated by a novel expression screening method for identifying protein kinase substrates". The EMBO Journal. 16 (8): 1921–33. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.8.1921. PMC 1169795. PMID 9155018.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Chow CW, Rincón M, Cavanagh J, Dickens M, Davis RJ (Nov 1997). "Nuclear accumulation of NFAT4 opposed by the JNK signal transduction pathway". Science. 278 (5343): 1638–41. doi:10.1126/science.278.5343.1638. PMID 9374467.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Hu MC, Qiu WR, Wang YP (Nov 1997). "JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3 are p53 N-terminal serine 34 kinases". Oncogene. 15 (19): 2277–87. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1201401. PMID 9393873.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Lannuzel A, Barnier JV, Hery C, Huynh VT, Guibert B, Gray F, Vincent JD, Tardieu M (Dec 1997). "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and its coat protein gp120 induce apoptosis and activate JNK and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases in human neurons". Annals of Neurology. 42 (6): 847–56. doi:10.1002/ana.410420605. PMID 9403476.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • Fuchs SY, Xie B, Adler V, Fried VA, Davis RJ, Ronai Z (Dec 1997). "c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases target the ubiquitination of their associated transcription factors". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (51): 32163–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.51.32163. PMID 9405416.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.