Mental retardation differential diagnosis

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Chelsea Mae Nobleza, M.D.[2]

Overview

Intellectual disability must be differentiated from other diseases that cause cognitive deficits such as neurocognitive disorders or brain injury, specific learning disorders, or genetic conditions that are characterized by mental retardation.

Differentiating Mental Retardation from other Diseases

  1. Neurocognitive disorders – there is loss of cognitive functioning in these cases.
  2. Specific learning disorder and language disorders – compared to individuals with ID, these individuals have deficits in communication and learning aspects but with normal intellect and adaptive function.
  3. Autism spectrum disordersocial development and language deficits are the hallmark of autism spectrum patients and have normal motor development.

Possible hearing and visual impairments should be ruled out in diagnosing intellectual disability. [1] [2]

Differential Diagnosis

References

  1. Patel, Dilip R.; Apple, Roger; Kanungo, Shibani; Akkal, Ashley (2018). "Intellectual disability: definitions, evaluation and principles of treatment". Pediatric Medicine. 1: 11–11. doi:10.21037/pm.2018.12.02. ISSN 2617-5428.
  2. "Neurodevelopmental Disorders". 2013. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm01.
  3. "Neurodevelopmental Disorders". 2013. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm01.
  4. "Neurodevelopmental Disorders". 2013. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm01.
  5. "Neurodevelopmental Disorders". 2013. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm01.
  6. "Neurodevelopmental Disorders". 2013. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm01.
  7. "Neurodevelopmental Disorders". 2013. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm01.
  8. "Neurodevelopmental Disorders". 2013. doi:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm01.

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