Mental retardation causes

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Mental retardation Microchapters

Home

Patient Information

Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Mental retardation from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Criteria

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

CT

Echocardiography or Ultrasound

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Primary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Mental retardation causes On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides

Images

American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Mental retardation causes

All Images
X-rays
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images
MRI

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Mental retardation causes

CDC on Mental retardation causes

Mental retardation causes in the news

Blogs on Mental retardation causes

Directions to Hospitals Treating Mental retardation

Risk calculators and risk factors for Mental retardation causes

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Causes

Common Causes

Down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome and Fragile X syndrome are the three most common inborn causes. However, doctors have found many other causes. The most common are:

  • Genetic conditions. Sometimes disability is caused by abnormal genes inherited from parents, errors when genes combine, or other reasons. Examples of genetic conditions include Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Phelan-McDermid syndrome (22q13del), Mowat-Wilson syndrome, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, Rett syndrome, Sanfilippo syndrome, and phenylketonuria (PKU).
  • Problems during pregnancy. Mental disability can result when the fetus does not develop inside the mother properly. For example, there may be a problem with the way the fetus's cells divide as it grows. A woman who drinks alcohol (see fetal alcohol syndrome) or gets an infection like rubella during pregnancy may also have a baby with mental disability.
  • Problems at birth. If a baby has problems during labor and birth, such as not getting enough oxygen, he or she may have developmental disability due to brain damage.
  • Health problems. Diseases like whooping cough, measles, or meningitis can cause mental disability. It can also be caused by not getting enough medical care, or by being exposed to poisons like lead or mercury.
  • Iodine deficiency, affecting approximately 2 billion people worldwide, is the leading preventable cause of mental disability in areas of the developing world where iodine deficiency is endemic. Iodine deficiency also causes goiter, an enlargement of the thyroid gland. More common than full-fledged cretinism, as retardation caused by severe iodine deficiency is called, is mild impairment of intelligence. Certain areas of the world due to natural deficiency and governmental inaction are severely affected. India is the most outstanding, with 500 million suffering from deficiency, 54 million from goiter, and 2 million from cretinism. Among other nations affected by iodine deficiency, China and Kazakhstan have begun taking action, while Russia has not. [1]
  • Malnutrition is a common cause of reduced intelligence in parts of the world affected by famine, such as Ethiopia. [2]
  • The use of forceps during birth can lead to mental retardation in an otherwise normal child. They can fracture the skull and cause brain damage.
  • Institutionalisation at a young age can cause mental retardation in normal children.
  • Sensory deprivation in the form of severe environmental restrictions (such as being locked in a basement or under a staircase), prolonged isolation, or severe atypical parent-child interactions.
  • Psycho-social disadvantage. Contributing factors are lack of reading material, use of a language not common in that community, poor diet, poor health practices, and poor housing.

Causes in Alphabetical Order

References

  1. "In Raising the World’s I.Q., the Secret’s in the Salt", article by Donald G. McNeil, Jr., December 16, 2006, New York Times
  2. "Malnutrition Is Cheating Its Survivors, and Africa’s Future" article in the New York Times by Michael Wines, December 28, 2006

Template:WH

Template:WS