Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief:


Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis is associated with several diseases that can be categorized in to different groups. The most relevant conditions are chronic infections, autoimmune diseases, chronic liver disease (cirrhosis and alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency), chronic and recovered thrombotic microangiopathies, Paraprotein deposition diseases, and malignant neoplasms genetic mutations.

Risk Factors

Conditions that increase the risk of MPGN incldude:

Risk Factor
Immune complex–mediated disease


Chronic infections

Thrombotic microangiopathies
Paraprotein deposition diseases
Malignant neoplasms
  • Lymphoma
  • Leukemia, and carcinoma are associated with a membranoproliferative pattern of renal injury.

Conditions associated with a membranoproliferative pattern of injury are listed as follows:

  • Immune complex–mediated disease
  • Genetic mutation
    • Deletion of Lys224 in regulatory domain 4 of Factor H
      • A study demonstrated that a delegation of a single Lys residue (K224) located within the complement regulatory region in domain 4 of Factor H will resulted in defected complement control . Mutant protein purified from the plasma of patients, so on laboratories test they showed severely reduced cofactor and decay-accelerating activity, as well as diminished attachment to the core complement component C3b. Albeit, cell-binding activity of the mutant protein was normal and comparable to wild-type Factor H.
  • Malignant neoplasms


  1. Fernando C. Fervenza, Sanjeev Sethi and Richard J. Glassock (2012). "Idiopathic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis: does it exist?". Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation.
  2. H. Terence Cook and Matthew C. Pickering (2014). "Histopathology of MPGN and C3 glomerulopathies". NATURE REVIEWS NEPHROLOGY.
  3. MICHELINE LEVY, MARIE-CLAIRE GUBLER, MIREILLE SICH, AGNES BEZIAU, AND RENE HABIB (1978). "lmmunopathology Glomerulonephritis of Membranoproliferative with Subendothelial Deposits". clinical immunology and immunopathology.
  4. Mårten Segelmark, Thomas Hellmark (2010). "Autoimmune kidney diseases". Elsevier.
  5. C Licht, S Heinen, M Jo ́zsi, I Lo ̈schmann, RE Saunders, SJ Perkins, R Waldherr, C Skerka, M Kirschfink, B Hoppe and PF Zipfel (2006). "Deletion of Lys224 in regulatory domain 4 of Factor H reveals a novel pathomechanism for dense deposit disease (MPGN II)". International Society of Nephrology.
  6. Dimitrios Kirmizis, MD, Georgios Efstratiadis, MD, Dominiki Economidou, MD, Evdoxia Diza-Mataftsi, MD, Maria Leontsini, MD, and Dimitrios Memmos, MD (2004). "MPGN Secondary to Lyme Disease". American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 43.

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