Langerhans cell histiocytosis laboratory tests

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Haytham Allaham, M.D. [2]


Laboratory findings consistent with the diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis include abnormal complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), basic metabolic panel, and immunohistochemistry.

Laboratory Findings

The following laboratory abnormalities may be found in patients suffering from Langerhans cells histiocytosis:[1][2][3][4][5]

Complete Blood Count

Basic Metabolic Panel

The following lab abnormalities may be seen on basal metabolic panel:[6][7]


  • Low urine specific gravity (1.008)
  • Low specific gravity persisted during a water deprivation test
  • Urine osmolality and urine specific gravity normalize following desmopressin administration


  • On immunohistochemistry Langerhans cell histiocytosis is characterized by:[8][9]
  • CD1a +ve
  • S100 +ve
  • CD207 (langerin) +ve


  1. DiCaprio MR, Roberts TT (2014). "Diagnosis and Management of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis". J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 22 (10): 643–652. doi:10.5435/JAAOS-22-10-643. PMID 25281259.
  2. Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Wikipedia (2015) Accessed on February, 2 2016
  3. Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Radiopeadia (2015) Accessed on February, 3 2016
  4. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version. National Cancer Institute (2015) Accessed on February, 3 2016
  5. Haupt R, Minkov M, Astigarraga I, Schäfer E, Nanduri V, Jubran R, Egeler RM, Janka G, Micic D, Rodriguez-Galindo C, Van Gool S, Visser J, Weitzman S, Donadieu J (February 2013). "Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH): guidelines for diagnosis, clinical work-up, and treatment for patients till the age of 18 years". Pediatr Blood Cancer. 60 (2): 175–84. doi:10.1002/pbc.24367. PMC 4557042. PMID 23109216.
  6. Montefusco L, Harari S, Elia D, Rossi A, Specchia C, Torre O, Adda G, Arosio M (May 2018). "Endocrine and metabolic assessment in adults with Langerhans cell histiocytosis". Eur. J. Intern. Med. 51: 61–67. doi:10.1016/j.ejim.2017.11.011. PMID 29198444.
  7. Liu DG, Zhang YX, Li F (February 2012). "Multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis with liver dysfunction as the first presentation: A case report". Oncol Lett. 3 (2): 391–394. doi:10.3892/ol.2011.462. PMID 22740918.
  8. Grace SA, Sutton AM, Armbrecht ES, Vidal CI, Rosman IS, Hurley MY (October 2017). "p53 Is a Helpful Marker in Distinguishing Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis From Langerhans Cell Hyperplasia". Am J Dermatopathol. 39 (10): 726–730. doi:10.1097/DAD.0000000000000778. PMID 27759703.
  9. Sholl LM, Hornick JL, Pinkus JL, Pinkus GS, Padera RF (June 2007). "Immunohistochemical analysis of langerin in langerhans cell histiocytosis and pulmonary inflammatory and infectious diseases". Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 31 (6): 947–52. doi:10.1097/ PMID 17527085.

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