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External IDsGeneCards: [1]
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



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Zinc finger protein Helios is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IKZF2 gene.[1][2][3]


This gene encodes a member of the Ikaros family of zinc-finger proteins. Three members of this protein family (Ikaros, Aiolos and Helios) are hematopoietic-specific transcription factors involved in the regulation of lymphocyte development. This protein forms homo- or hetero-dimers with other Ikaros family members, and is thought to function predominantly in early hematopoietic development. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene, but the biological validity of some variants has not been determined.[3]


  1. Hahm K, Cobb BS, McCarty AS, Brown KE, Klug CA, Lee R, Akashi K, Weissman IL, Fisher AG, Smale ST (Mar 1998). "Helios, a T cell-restricted Ikaros family member that quantitatively associates with Ikaros at centromeric heterochromatin". Genes & Development. 12 (6): 782–96. doi:10.1101/gad.12.6.782. PMC 316626. PMID 9512513.
  2. Kelley CM, Ikeda T, Koipally J, Avitahl N, Wu L, Georgopoulos K, Morgan BA (Apr 1998). "Helios, a novel dimerization partner of Ikaros expressed in the earliest hematopoietic progenitors". Current Biology. 8 (9): 508–15. doi:10.1016/S0960-9822(98)70202-7. PMID 9560339.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Entrez Gene: IKZF2 IKAROS family zinc finger 2 (Helios)".

Further reading

  • Rebollo A, Schmitt C (Jun 2003). "Ikaros, Aiolos and Helios: transcription regulators and lymphoid malignancies". Immunology and Cell Biology. 81 (3): 171–5. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1711.2003.01159.x. PMID 12752680.
  • Sridharan R, Smale ST (Oct 2007). "Predominant interaction of both Ikaros and Helios with the NuRD complex in immature thymocytes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 (41): 30227–38. doi:10.1074/jbc.M702541200. PMID 17681952.
  • Tabayashi T, Ishimaru F, Takata M, Kataoka I, Nakase K, Kozuka T, Tanimoto M (Feb 2007). "Characterization of the short isoform of Helios overexpressed in patients with T-cell malignancies". Cancer Science. 98 (2): 182–8. doi:10.1111/j.1349-7006.2006.00372.x. PMID 17297655.
  • Sun L, Kerawalla H, Wu X, Lehnert MS, Uckun FM (Apr 2002). "Expression of a unique helios isoform in human leukemia cells". Leukemia & Lymphoma. 43 (4): 841–9. doi:10.1080/10428190290016980. PMID 12153174.
  • Durand C, Kerfourn F, Charlemagne J, Fellah JS (Jun 2002). "Identification and expression of Helios, a member of the Ikaros family, in the Mexican axolotl: implications for the embryonic origin of lymphocyte progenitors". European Journal of Immunology. 32 (6): 1748–52. doi:10.1002/1521-4141(200206)32:6<1748::AID-IMMU1748>3.0.CO;2-B. PMID 12115658.
  • Nakase K, Ishimaru F, Fujii K, Tabayashi T, Kozuka T, Sezaki N, Matsuo Y, Harada M (Apr 2002). "Overexpression of novel short isoforms of Helios in a patient with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia". Experimental Hematology. 30 (4): 313–7. doi:10.1016/S0301-472X(01)00796-2. PMID 11937265.
  • Perdomo J, Holmes M, Chong B, Crossley M (Dec 2000). "Eos and pegasus, two members of the Ikaros family of proteins with distinct DNA binding activities". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (49): 38347–54. doi:10.1074/jbc.M005457200. PMID 10978333.
  • Hosokawa Y, Maeda Y, Seto M (Oct 1999). "Human Helios, an Ikaros-related zinc finger DNA binding protein: cDNA cloning and tissue expression pattern". Immunogenetics. 50 (1–2): 106–8. doi:10.1007/s002510050696. PMID 10541817.

External links

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.