Hemolytic-uremic syndrome historical perspective

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sogand Goudarzi, MD [2]


In 1955, Gasser et al first described hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). There have been several outbreaks of HUS all over the world over past years.

Historical Perspective


  • In 1955, Gasser et al first described hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS).[1]
  • In 1983, Karmali et al discovered the association between Escherichia coli, Shiga-toxin-producing bacteria, and the development of HUS.[2]


There have been several outbreaks of HUS, which are summarized below:

  • In Febryary 2006, HUS outbreak in Norway.[3]
  • 2011 EHEC/HUS outbreak in Germany.[4]
  • 2011 HUS outbreak nationwide in Norway.[5]
  • In June 2011, HUS outbreak from Shiga toxin-secreting Escherichia coli (STEC) O104:H4 from contaminated fenugreek sprouts occurred near Bordeaux, France.[6]
  • In December 2016, HUS outbreak in Germany.[7]


  1. A. Schieppati, P. Ruggenenti, R. P. Cornejo, F. Ferrario, G. Gregorini, P. Zucchelli, E. Rossi & G. Remuzzi (1992). "Renal function at hospital admission as a prognostic factor in adult hemolytic uremic syndrome. The Italian Registry of Haemolytic Uremic Syndrome". Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 2 (11): 1640–1644. PMID 1610985. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  2. Karmali MA, Steele BT, Petric M, Lim C (1983). "Sporadic cases of haemolytic-uraemic syndrome associated with faecal cytotoxin and cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli in stools". Lancet. 1 (8325): 619–20. PMID 6131302.
  3. Schimmer B, Nygard K, Eriksen HM, Lassen J, Lindstedt BA, Brandal LT; et al. (2008). "Outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome in Norway caused by stx2-positive Escherichia coli O103:H25 traced to cured mutton sausages". BMC Infect Dis. 8: 41. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-8-41. PMC 2335110. PMID 18387178.
  4. Juliane Manitz, Thomas Kneib, Martin Schlather, Dirk Helbing & Dirk Brockmann (2014). "Origin Detection During Food-borne Disease Outbreaks - A Case Study of the 2011 EHEC/HUS Outbreak in Germany". PLoS currents. 6. doi:10.1371/currents.outbreaks.f3fdeb08c5b9de7c09ed9cbcef5f01f2. PMID 24818065. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  5. Lars Krogvold, Thore Henrichsen, Anna Bjerre, Damien Brackman, Henrik Dollner, Helga Gudmundsdottir, Gaute Syversen, Pal Aksel Naess & Hans Jacob Bangstad (2011). "Clinical aspects of a nationwide epidemic of severe haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) in children". Scandinavian journal of trauma, resuscitation and emergency medicine. 19: 44. doi:10.1186/1757-7241-19-44. PMID 21798000. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  6. Delmas Y, Vendrely B, Clouzeau B, Bachir H, Bui HN, Lacraz A; et al. (2014). "Outbreak of Escherichia coli O104:H4 haemolytic uraemic syndrome in France: outcome with eculizumab". Nephrol Dial Transplant. 29 (3): 565–72. doi:10.1093/ndt/gft470. PMC 3938298. PMID 24293658.
  7. Vygen-Bonnet S, Rosner B, Wilking H, Fruth A, Prager R, Kossow A; et al. (2017). "Ongoing haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) outbreak caused by sorbitol-fermenting (SF) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, Germany, December 2016 to May 2017". Euro Surveill. 22 (21). doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.21.30541. PMC 5479985. PMID 28597831.

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