HIV induced pericarditis epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [2]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Varun Kumar, M.B.B.S.; Lakshmi Gopalakrishnan, M.B.B.S. Ramyar Ghandriz MD[3]

Overview

Pericardial disease in HIV positive patients is increasing in prevalence, below is some demographic features of the disease.

Epidemiology and Demographics

Pericardial diseases in the form of pericardial effusion or cardiac tamponade[1][2][3][4] have been recognized as complications since HIV infection was first reported in 1981.

  • In a small autopsy study, 24% of the cases were reported with major cardiac pathology.[5]
  • The incidence of pericardial effusion in patients with asymptomatic AIDS was 11% per year before the introduction of effective highly active antiretroviral therapy(HAART). The 6 month survival rate of AIDS patients with effusion was significantly shorter (36%) than the survival rate without effusions (93%). This shortened survival rate remained statistically significant after adjustment for lead-time bias and was independent of CD4 count and albumin level.[1]
  • The incidence of AIDS-related cardiac disease is very high in Africa in comparison to that seen in the developed countries. In the period from 1993 to 1999 in Burkina Faso, 79% of AIDS patients exhibited cardiac involvement, whereas in an Italian study during the period 1992 to 1995, the incidence of AIDS-related cardiac disease was 6.5%.[8]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Heidenreich PA, Eisenberg MJ, Kee LL, Somelofski CA, Hollander H, Schiller NB; et al. (1995). "Pericardial effusion in AIDS. Incidence and survival". Circulation. 92 (11): 3229–34. PMID 7586308.
  2. Stotka JL, Good CB, Downer WR, Kapoor WN (1989). "Pericardial effusion and tamponade due to Kaposi's sarcoma in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome". Chest. 95 (6): 1359–61. PMID 2721281.
  3. Karve MM, Murali MR, Shah HM, Phelps KR (1992). "Rapid evolution of cardiac tamponade due to bacterial pericarditis in two patients with HIV-1 infection". Chest. 101 (5): 1461–3. PMID 1582323.
  4. Chen Y, Brennessel D, Walters J, Johnson M, Rosner F, Raza M (1999) Human immunodeficiency virus-associated pericardial effusion: report of 40 cases and review of the literature. Am Heart J 137 (3):516-21. PMID: 10047635
  5. Cammarosano C, Lewis W (1985). "Cardiac lesions in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)". J Am Coll Cardiol. 5 (3): 703–6. PMID 3973269.
  6. Sudano I, Spieker LE, Noll G, Corti R, Weber R, Lüscher TF (2006) Cardiovascular disease in HIV infection. Am Heart J 151 (6):1147-55. [1] PMID: 16781213
  7. Harmon WG, Dadlani GH, Fisher SD, Lipshultz SE (2002)Myocardial and Pericardial Disease in HIV. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med 4 (6):497-509. PMID: 12408791
  8. Pugliese A, Gennero L, Vidotto V, Beltramo T, Petrini S, Torre D (2004). "A review of cardiovascular complications accompanying AIDS". Cell Biochem Funct. 22 (3): 137–41. doi:10.1002/cbf.1095. PMID 15124176.