Gestational diabetes maternal complications

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Diabetes mellitus main page

Gestational diabetes Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective




Differentiating Gestational Diabetes from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History and Prognosis


Fetal and Neonatal


Diagnostic Study of Choice

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings


Chest X Ray



Echocardiography or Ultrasound

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies


Dietary Therapy

Medical Therapy

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention


Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Gestational diabetes maternal complications On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Gestational diabetes maternal complications

All Images
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images

Ongoing Trials at Clinical

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Gestational diabetes maternal complications

CDC on Gestational diabetes maternal complications

Gestational diabetes maternal complications in the news

Blogs on Gestational diabetes maternal complications

Directions to Hospitals Treating Gestational diabetes

Risk calculators and risk factors for Gestational diabetes maternal complications

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1];Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Seyedmahdi Pahlavani, M.D. [2]


Maternal complications of GDM can be categorized into obstetric complications, and long term glycemic status-related complications. Pre-eclampsia, polyhydramnios, and difficult labor due to fetal macrosomia, are obstetric complications. The risk of developing prediabetes or even overt diabetes is increased in GDM patients.

Maternal complications

Obstetric complications


Women with GDM are at a higher risk of developing pre-eclampsia.[1][2]


GDM is associated with an increased risk of polyhydramnios, probably because of fetal polyuria.[3]

Difficult labor

Macrosomia is a fetal complication of GDM that may result in difficult labor, shoulder dystocia, brachial plexus injury, and fractures.[4][5]

Long term complications


  1. Yogev Y, Xenakis EM, Langer O (2004). "The association between preeclampsia and the severity of gestational diabetes: the impact of glycemic control". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 191 (5): 1655–60. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2004.03.074. PMID 15547538.
  2. Yogev, Yogev, Yogev, Yogev, Yogev, Yogev, Yogev, Yogev, Yogev, Yogev, Yogev, Yogev, Yogev, Yogev, Yogev, Yogev (2010). "Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) study: preeclampsia". Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 202 (3): 255.e1–7. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2010.01.024. PMC 2836485. PMID 20207245.
  3. Casey BM, Lucas MJ, Mcintire DD, Leveno KJ (1997). "Pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes compared with the general obstetric population". Obstet Gynecol. 90 (6): 869–73. PMID 9397092.
  4. Lipscomb KR, Gregory K, Shaw K (1995). "The outcome of macrosomic infants weighing at least 4500 grams: Los Angeles County + University of Southern California experience". Obstet Gynecol. 85 (4): 558–64. doi:10.1016/0029-7844(95)00005-C. PMID 7898833.
  5. Bérard J, Dufour P, Vinatier D, Subtil D, Vanderstichèle S, Monnier JC, Puech F (1998). "Fetal macrosomia: risk factors and outcome. A study of the outcome concerning 100 cases >4500 g". Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 77 (1): 51–9. PMID 9550201.
  6. Kjos SL, Buchanan TA (1999). "Gestational diabetes mellitus". N. Engl. J. Med. 341 (23): 1749–56. doi:10.1056/NEJM199912023412307. PMID 10580075.
  7. Arun CS, Taylor R (2008). "Influence of pregnancy on long-term progression of retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes". Diabetologia. 51 (6): 1041–5. doi:10.1007/s00125-008-0994-z. PMID 18392803.
  8. Reece EA, Winn HN, Hayslett JP, Coulehan J, Wan M, Hobbins JC (1990). "Does pregnancy alter the rate of progression of diabetic nephropathy?". Am J Perinatol. 7 (2): 193–7. doi:10.1055/s-2007-999479. PMID 2331283.
  9. Shah BR, Retnakaran R, Booth GL (2008). "Increased risk of cardiovascular disease in young women following gestational diabetes mellitus". Diabetes Care. 31 (8): 1668–9. doi:10.2337/dc08-0706. PMC 2494649. PMID 18487472.
  10. Kessous R, Shoham-Vardi I, Pariente G, Sherf M, Sheiner E (2013). "An association between gestational diabetes mellitus and long-term maternal cardiovascular morbidity". Heart. 99 (15): 1118–21. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2013-303945. PMID 23749791.

Template:WH Template:WS