Gastritis other diagnostic studies

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Aravind Reddy Kothagadi M.B.B.S[2]


In Helicobacter pylori infection which is the most common cause of gastritis, a non-invasive test such as the urea breath test is used to determine the presence of H. pylori in the stomach.

Other Diagnostic Studies

  • The urea labeled with either the nonradioactive isotope 13C or the radioactive isotope 14C is ingested.
  • The H. pylori urease converts labeled urea to CO2, which can be quantitated in expired breath.


  1. Gisbert JP, Pajares JM (2004). "Review article: 13C-urea breath test in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection -- a critical review". Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 20 (10): 1001–17. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2004.02203.x. PMID 15569102.
  2. Chey WD (2000). "Accurate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. 14C-urea breath test". Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 29 (4): 895–902. PMID 11190074.
  3. Steen T, Berstad K, Meling T, Berstad A (1995). "Reproducibility of the 14C urea breath test repeated after 1 week". Am J Gastroenterol. 90 (12): 2103–5. PMID 8540496.
  4. Leodolter A, Domínguez-Muñoz JE, von Arnim U, Kahl S, Peitz U, Malfertheiner P (1999). "Validity of a modified 13C-urea breath test for pre- and posttreatment diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in the routine clinical setting". Am J Gastroenterol. 94 (8): 2100–4. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.1999.01284.x. PMID 10445534.
  5. Perri F, Manes G, Neri M, Vaira D, Nardone G (2002). "Helicobacter pylori antigen stool test and 13C-urea breath test in patients after eradication treatments". Am J Gastroenterol. 97 (11): 2756–62. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2002.07065.x. PMID 12425544.
  6. Graham DY, Opekun AR, Hammoud F, Yamaoka Y, Reddy R, Osato MS; et al. (2003). "Studies regarding the mechanism of false negative urea breath tests with proton pump inhibitors". Am J Gastroenterol. 98 (5): 1005–9. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2003.07426.x. PMID 12809820.
  7. Chey WD, Woods M, Scheiman JM, Nostrant TT, DelValle J (1997). "Lansoprazole and ranitidine affect the accuracy of the 14C-urea breath test by a pH-dependent mechanism". Am J Gastroenterol. 92 (3): 446–50. PMID 9068466.
  8. Laine L, Estrada R, Trujillo M, Knigge K, Fennerty MB (1998). "Effect of proton-pump inhibitor therapy on diagnostic testing for Helicobacter pylori". Ann Intern Med. 129 (7): 547–50. PMID 9758575.
  9. Gatta L, Vakil N, Ricci C, Osborn JF, Tampieri A, Perna F; et al. (2004). "Effect of proton pump inhibitors and antacid therapy on 13C urea breath tests and stool test for Helicobacter pylori infection". Am J Gastroenterol. 99 (5): 823–9. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2004.30162.x. PMID 15128344.

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