Gastritis causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Aravind Reddy Kothagadi M.B.B.S[2]


The most common causes of gastritis include H. pylori infection, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, extended use of NSAIDs such as (aspirin, naproxen, ibuprofen), stress, autoimmune gastritis, and excessive consumption of coffee and acidic beverages. Less common causes of gastritis include cocaine addiction, bile reflux, crohn's disease, constipation, consumption of poisons and other caustic or corrosive chemical substances, sarcoidosis, radiation therapy, chemotherapy drugs, iron and potassium supplements; stress as a result of major surgery, trauma, or other illness; infections caused by viruses such as HSV, cytomegalovirus (mostly seen in immunocompromised individuals), parasitic infections, and fungal infections.


The causes may be divided into common and less common causes: [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

Common Causes

Less Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Arterial occlusive disease
Chemical/Poisoning Formaldehyde poisoning, Ethanol, Chemical irritation, reactive, Chaga mushroom, Carbon disulfide poisoning, Breynia officinalis poisoning, Amnesic shellfish poisoning, Alcohol
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic No underlying causes
Drug Side Effect Aceclofenac, Acetylsalicylic acid, Alendronate, Aloe, Aminopyrine, Aspirin, Benoxaprofen, Bezafibrate, Bromfenac, Carprofen, Cidofovir, Cinnoxicam, Clofibrate, Clopidogrel, Corticosteroids, COX 2 inhibitors, Dexibuprofen, Dexketoprofen, Diclofenac, Diflunisal, Etodolac, Etidronate, Febuxostat, Fenbufen, Fenoprofen, Flufenamic acid, Flurbiprofen, Heparin, ibandronate, Ibuprofen, Indobufen, Indomethacin, Ixabepilone, Ketoprofen, Ketorolac, Leflunomide, Meclofenamate, Mefenamic acid, Meloxicam, Mofebutazone, Mycophenolic acid, Nabilone, Nabumetone, Naproxen, Naproxen and esomeprazole magnesium, Nepafenac, Nimesulide, NSAIDs, Oxaprozin, Oxyphenbutazone, Pentamidine Isethionate, Pergolide, Phenylbutazone, Pramipexole, Piroxicam, Sertraline, Sodium salicylate, Sorafenib, SSRI, Sulindac, SpironolactoneTenoxicam, Tiagabine, Tiaprofenic acid, Ticlopidine, Tiludronate, Tolmetin, Topiramate, Warfarin
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Excessive gastrin
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Peptic ulcer disease, Metaplastic gastritis, Lymphocytic gastritis, Isolated granulomatous gastritis, Idiopathic Isolated granulomatous, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Gastroenteritis, Gastric Anacidity, Eosinophilic gastritis, Crohn's disease, Chronic bile reflux, Celiac disease-associated, Bile reflux, Achlorhydria
Genetic No underlying causes
Hematologic No underlying causes
Iatrogenic Postoperative alkaline Gastritis, Postantrectomy atrophic gastritis, Major surgery, Adjustable gastric band
Infectious Disease Viruses, Syphilis, Severe infections, Salmonella infection, Parasites, Mycobacterial infection,Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter heilmannii, Fungi, Escherichia coli infection, Bacteria (other than H. pylori) Phlegmonous
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic No underlying causes
Neurologic No underlying causes
Nutritional/Metabolic Vitamin B12 deficiency, Pernicious anemia-associated, megaloblastic anemia , Intrinsic factor deficiency, Gluten-sensitive enteropathy associated conditions, Food sensitivity, Fatty food, Excessive caffeine and tea, Eating spicy food, Acidic foods
Obstetric/Gynecologic No underlying causes
Oncologic Stomach cancer, Esophageal cancer
Ophthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose/Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary No underlying causes
Renal/Electrolyte No underlying causes
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy Wegener's granulomatosis, Sarcoidosis, Autoimmune digestive disorders, Atrophic gastritis, vasculitides Granulomatosis with polyangiitis
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma Traumatic injury
Urologic No underlying causes
Miscellaneous Smoking, Sedentary lifestyle, Phlegmonous gastritis, Ménétrier's disease, Foreign substances, Food poisoning, Food allergy, Burns

Causes in Alphabetical Order

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  1. "Reorganized text". JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 141 (5): 428. 2015. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2015.0540. PMID 25996397.
  2. Franke A, Teyssen S, Singer MV (2005). "Alcohol-related diseases of the esophagus and stomach". Dig Dis. 23 (3–4): 204–13. doi:10.1159/000090167. PMID 16508284.
  3. Cheli R, Giacosa A, Marenco G, Canepa M, Dante GL, Ghezzo L (1981). "Chronic gastritis and alcohol". Z Gastroenterol. 19 (9): 459–63. PMID 7293294.
  4. Mincis M, Chebli JM, Khouri ST, Mincis R (1995). "[Ethanol and the gastrointestinal tract]". Arq Gastroenterol. 32 (3): 131–9. PMID 8728788.
  5. Nakamura M, Haruma K, Kamada T, Mihara M, Yoshihara M, Sumioka M; et al. (2002). "Cigarette smoking promotes atrophic gastritis in Helicobacter pylori-positive subjects". Dig Dis Sci. 47 (3): 675–81. PMID 11911358.
  6. Nakamura M, Haruma K, Kamada T, Mihara M, Yoshihara M, Imagawa M; et al. (2001). "Duodenogastric reflux is associated with antral metaplastic gastritis". Gastrointest Endosc. 53 (1): 53–9. doi:10.1067/mge.2001.111385. PMID 11154489.
  7. Astley CE (1967). "Gastritis, aspirin, and alcohol". Br Med J. 4 (5577): 484. PMC 1748516. PMID 6055742.
  8. Ji BT, Chow WH, Yang G, McLaughlin JK, Gao RN, Zheng W; et al. (1996). "The influence of cigarette smoking, alcohol, and green tea consumption on the risk of carcinoma of the cardia and distal stomach in Shanghai, China". Cancer. 77 (12): 2449–57. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19960615)77:12<2449::AID-CNCR6>3.0.CO;2-H. PMID 8640692.
  9. Laine L (1996). "Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug gastropathy". Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 6 (3): 489–504. PMID 8803564.
  10. Lundberg GD, Garriott JC, Reynolds PC, Cravey RH, Shaw RF (1977). "Cocaine-related death". J Forensic Sci. 22 (2): 402–8. PMID 618156.

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