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RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



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Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit zeta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRIN1 gene.[1][2]

The protein encoded by this gene is a critical subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, members of the glutamate receptor channel superfamily which are heteromeric protein complexes with multiple subunits arranged to form a ligand-gated ion channel. These subunits play a key role in the plasticity of synapses, which is believed to underlie memory and learning. The gene consists of 21 exons and is alternatively spliced, producing transcript variants differing in the C-terminus. Although the sequence of exon 5 is identical in human and rat, the alternative exon 5 splicing in rat has yet to be demonstrated in human. Cell-specific factors are thought to control expression of different isoforms, possibly contributing to the functional diversity of the subunits.[2]

See also


  1. Monyer H, Sprengel R, Schoepfer R, Herb A, Higuchi M, Lomeli H, Burnashev N, Sakmann B, Seeburg PH (Jun 1992). "Heteromeric NMDA receptors: molecular and functional distinction of subtypes". Science. 256 (5060): 1217–21. doi:10.1126/science.256.5060.1217. PMID 1350383.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Entrez Gene: GRIN1 glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate 1".

Further reading

  • Lin JW, Wyszynski M, Madhavan R, et al. (1998). "Yotiao, a novel protein of neuromuscular junction and brain that interacts with specific splice variants of NMDA receptor subunit NR1". J. Neurosci. 18 (6): 2017–27. PMID 9482789.
  • Schröder HC, Perovic S, Kavsan V, et al. (1998). "Mechanisms of prionSc- and HIV-1 gp120 induced neuronal cell death". Neurotoxicology. 19 (4–5): 683–8. PMID 9745929.
  • Adriani W, Felici A, Sargolini F, et al. (1999). "N-methyl-D-aspartate and dopamine receptor involvement in the modulation of locomotor activity and memory processes". Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. 123 (1–2): 52–9. doi:10.1007/s002210050544. PMID 9835392.
  • Dingledine R, Borges K, Bowie D, Traynelis SF (1999). "The glutamate receptor ion channels". Pharmacol. Rev. 51 (1): 7–61. PMID 10049997.
  • King JE, Eugenin EA, Buckner CM, Berman JW (2006). "HIV tat and neurotoxicity". Microbes Infect. 8 (5): 1347–57. doi:10.1016/j.micinf.2005.11.014. PMID 16697675.
  • Zimmer M, Fink TM, Franke Y, et al. (1995). "Cloning and structure of the gene encoding the human N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR1)". Gene. 159 (2): 219–23. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(95)00044-7. PMID 7622053.
  • Karp SJ, Masu M, Eki T, et al. (1993). "Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of the key subunit of the human N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (5): 3728–33. PMID 7679115.
  • Younkin DP, Tang CM, Hardy M, et al. (1993). "Inducible expression of neuronal glutamate receptor channels in the NT2 human cell line". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90 (6): 2174–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.6.2174. PMC 46048. PMID 7681588.
  • Planells-Cases R, Sun W, Ferrer-Montiel AV, Montal M (1993). "Molecular cloning, functional expression, and pharmacological characterization of an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit from human brain". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90 (11): 5057–61. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.11.5057. PMC 46653. PMID 7685113.
  • Magnuson DS, Knudsen BE, Geiger JD, et al. (1995). "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat activates non-N-methyl-D-aspartate excitatory amino acid receptors and causes neurotoxicity". Ann. Neurol. 37 (3): 373–80. doi:10.1002/ana.410370314. PMID 7695237.
  • Foldes RL, Rampersad V, Kamboj RK (1994). "Cloning and sequence analysis of additional splice variants encoding human N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (hNR1) subunits". Gene. 147 (2): 303–4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90089-2. PMID 7926821.
  • Sheng M, Cummings J, Roldan LA, et al. (1994). "Changing subunit composition of heteromeric NMDA receptors during development of rat cortex". Nature. 368 (6467): 144–7. doi:10.1038/368144a0. PMID 8139656.
  • Tingley WG, Roche KW, Thompson AK, Huganir RL (1993). "Regulation of NMDA receptor phosphorylation by alternative splicing of the C-terminal domain". Nature. 364 (6432): 70–3. doi:10.1038/364070a0. PMID 8316301.
  • Foldes RL, Rampersad V, Kamboj RK (1993). "Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNAs encoding human hippocampus N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits: evidence for alternative RNA splicing". Gene. 131 (2): 293–8. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(93)90309-Q. PMID 8406025.
  • Collins C, Duff C, Duncan AM, et al. (1993). "Mapping of the human NMDA receptor subunit (NMDAR1) and the proposed NMDA receptor glutamate-binding subunit (NMDARA1) to chromosomes 9q34.3 and chromosome 8, respectively". Genomics. 17 (1): 237–9. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1311. PMID 8406459.
  • Lannuzel A, Lledo PM, Lamghitnia HO, et al. (1996). "HIV-1 envelope proteins gp120 and gp160 potentiate NMDA-induced [Ca2+]i increase, alter [Ca2+]i homeostasis and induce neurotoxicity in human embryonic neurons". Eur. J. Neurosci. 7 (11): 2285–93. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.1995.tb00649.x. PMID 8563977.
  • Corasaniti MT, Melino G, Navarra M, et al. (1996). "Death of cultured human neuroblastoma cells induced by HIV-1 gp120 is prevented by NMDA receptor antagonists and inhibitors of nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase". Neurodegeneration : a journal for neurodegenerative disorders, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration. 4 (3): 315–21. doi:10.1016/1055-8330(95)90021-7. PMID 8581564.
  • Ehlers MD, Zhang S, Bernhadt JP, Huganir RL (1996). "Inactivation of NMDA receptors by direct interaction of calmodulin with the NR1 subunit". Cell. 84 (5): 745–55. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81052-1. PMID 8625412.
  • Pittaluga A, Pattarini R, Severi P, Raiteri M (1996). "Human brain N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors regulating noradrenaline release are positively modulated by HIV-1 coat protein gp120". AIDS. 10 (5): 463–8. doi:10.1097/00002030-199605000-00003. PMID 8724036.