Eukaryotic release factors

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External IDsGeneCards: [1]
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



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Eukaryotic translation termination factor 1 (eRF1), also known asTB3-1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ETF1 gene.[1][2][3]

In eukaryotes, this is the only release factor (eRF) which recognizes all three stop codons. The overall process of termination is similar in prokaryotes, but in the latter 3 separate release factors exist, RF1, RF2 and RF3.[4]


Termination of protein biosynthesis and release of the nascent polypeptide chain are signaled by the presence of an in-frame stop codon at the aminoacyl site of the ribosome. The process of translation termination is universal and is mediated by protein release factors (RFs) and GTP. A class 1 RF recognizes the stop codon and promotes the hydrolysis of the ester bond linking the polypeptide chain with the peptidyl site tRNA, a reaction catalyzed at the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome. Class 2 RFs, which are not codon specific and do not recognize codons, stimulate class 1 RF activity and confer GTP dependency upon the process. In prokaryotes, both class 1 RFs, RF1 and RF2, recognize UAA; however, UAG and UGA are decoded specifically by RF1 and RF2, respectively. In eukaryotes, eRF1, or ETF1, the functional counterpart of RF1 and RF2, functions as an omnipotent RF, decoding all 3 stop codons.[1][3]


  1. 1.0 1.1 "Entrez Gene: eukaryotic translation termination factor 1".
  2. Grenett HE, Eipers PG, Kidd VJ, Bounelis P, Fuller GM (January 1992). "Chromosomal localization of a human cDNA containing a DIDS binding domain and demonstrating high homology to yeast omnipotent suppressor 45". Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. 18 (1): 97–102. doi:10.1007/BF01233452. PMID 1546371.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Frolova L, Le Goff X, Rasmussen HH, Cheperegin S, Drugeon G, Kress M, Arman I, Haenni AL, Celis JE, Philippe M (December 1994). "A highly conserved eukaryotic protein family possessing properties of polypeptide chain release factor". Nature. 372 (6507): 701–3. doi:10.1038/372701a0. PMID 7990965.
  4. Kisselev L, Ehrenberg M, Frolova L (January 2003). "Termination of translation: interplay of mRNA, rRNAs and release factors?". EMBO J. 22 (2): 175–82. doi:10.1093/emboj/cdg017. PMC 140092. PMID 12514123.

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This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.