Epilepsy physical examination

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Fahimeh Shojaei, M.D.

Overview

Common physical examination findings of epileptic seizure include: Automatic behaviors, upward eye rolling, unconsciousness, drooling, cyanosis, post-ictal drowsiness, fever, tachycardia, hypertension, mydriasis, nystagmus, urine and fecal incontinence, disorientation to persons, place, and time, altered mental status, automatic behaviors (repetitive muscle movement), Muscle rigidity and hyper-reflexia.

Physical Examination

Physical examination of patients with epilepsy is usually remarkable for:

Appearance of the Patient

Vital Signs

Skin

HEENT

Neck

  • Neck examination of patients with epilepsy is usually normal.

Lungs

Heart

Abdomen

  • Abdominal examination of patients with epilepsy is usually normal.

Back

  • Back examination of patients with epilepsy is usually normal.

Genitourinary

Neuromuscular

Extremities

  • Extremities examination of patients with epilepsy is usually normal.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Mattle, Heinrich (2017). Fundamentals of neurology : an illustrated guide. Stuttgart New York: Thieme. ISBN 9783131364524.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Hampel KG, Jahanbekam A, Elger CE, Surges R (October 2016). "Seizure-related modulation of systemic arterial blood pressure in focal epilepsy". Epilepsia. 57 (10): 1709–1718. doi:10.1111/epi.13504. PMID 27549906.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Hoefnagels WA, Padberg GW, Overweg J, van der Velde EA, Roos RA (February 1991). "Transient loss of consciousness: the value of the history for distinguishing seizure from syncope". J. Neurol. 238 (1): 39–43. PMID 2030371.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Annegers JF, Coan SP (October 2000). "The risks of epilepsy after traumatic brain injury". Seizure. 9 (7): 453–7. doi:10.1053/seiz.2000.0458. PMID 11034867.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. Gadoth N, Margalith D, Bechar M (1981). "Unilateral pupillary dilatation during focal seizures". J. Neurol. 225 (3): 227–30. PMID 6167689.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Ma Y, Wang J, Li D, Lang S (2015). "Two types of isolated epileptic nystagmus: case report". Int J Clin Exp Med. 8 (8): 13500–7. PMC 4612972. PMID 26550287.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Mokhtarifar A, Mozaffari H, Afshari R, Goshayeshi L, Akavan Rezayat K, Ghaffarzadegan K, Sheikhian M, Rajabzadeh F (2013). "Cholestasis and seizure due to lead toxicity: a case report". Hepat Mon. 13 (11): e12427. doi:10.5812/hepatmon.12427. PMC 3860072. PMID 24348646.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Hopstaken RM, Muris JW, Knottnerus JA, Kester AD, Rinkens PE, Dinant GJ (May 2003). "Contributions of symptoms, signs, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein to a diagnosis of pneumonia in acute lower respiratory tract infection". Br J Gen Pract. 53 (490): 358–64. PMID 12830562.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. DeToledo JC, Lowe MR, Gonzalez J, Haddad H (August 2004). "Risk of aspiration pneumonia after an epileptic seizure: a retrospective analysis of 1634 adult patients". Epilepsy Behav. 5 (4): 593–5. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2004.03.009. PMID 15256199.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Behbahani S (July 2018). "A review of significant research on epileptic seizure detection and prediction using heart rate variability". Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars. 46 (5): 414–421. doi:10.5543/tkda.2018.64928. PMID 30024401.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Brigo F, Nardone R, Ausserer H, Storti M, Tezzon F, Manganotti P, Bongiovanni LG (March 2013). "The diagnostic value of urinary incontinence in the differential diagnosis of seizures". Seizure. 22 (2): 85–90. doi:10.1016/j.seizure.2012.10.011. PMID 23142708.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Olsen, T. S.; Hogenhaven, H.; Thage, O. (1987). "Epilepsy after stroke". Neurology. 37 (7): 1209–1209. doi:10.1212/WNL.37.7.1209. ISSN 0028-3878.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

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