Enzalutamide

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Enzalutamide
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Aparna Vuppala, M.B.B.S. [2]

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Overview

Enzalutamide is an antineoplastic agent that is FDA approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Common adverse reactions include asthenia/fatigue, back pain, decreased appetite, constipation, arthralgia, diarrhea, hot flush, upper respiratory tract infection, peripheral edema, dyspnea, musculoskeletal pain, weight decreased(Weight Loss), headache, hypertension, and dizziness/vertigo..

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

Enzalutamide is indicated for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)

Dosing Information
  • The recommended dose of Enzalutamide is 160 mg (four 40 mg capsules) administered orally once daily. Enzalutamide can be taken with or without food. Swallow capsules whole. Do not chew, dissolve, or open the capsules.
Dose Modifications
  • If a patient experiences a ≥ Grade 3 toxicity or an intolerable side effect, withhold dosing for one week or until symptoms improve to ≤ Grade 2, then resume at the same or a reduced dose (120 mg or 80 mg), if warranted.
Concomitant Strong CYP2C8 Inhibitors
  • The concomitant use of strong CYP2C8 inhibitors should be avoided if possible. If patients must be co-administered a strong CYP2C8 inhibitor, reduce the Enzalutamide dose to 80 mg once daily. If co-administration of the strong inhibitor is discontinued, the Enzalutamide dose should be returned to the dose used prior to initiation of the strong CYP2C8 inhibitor

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

Safety and effectiveness of Enzalutamide in pediatric patients have not been established.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

Safety and effectiveness of Enzalutamide in pediatric patients have not been established.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

Safety and effectiveness of Enzalutamide in pediatric patients have not been established.

Contraindications

Pregnancy
  • Enzalutamide can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman based on its mechanism of action and findings in animals. Enzalutamide is not indicated for use in women. Enzalutamide is contraindicated in women who are or may become pregnant. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, apprise the patient of the potential hazard to the fetus and the potential risk for pregnancy loss

Warnings

Seizure
  • In Study 1, which enrolled patients who previously received docetaxel, 7 of 800 (0.9%) patients treated with Enzalutamide experienced a seizure and no patients treated with placebo experienced a seizure. Seizure occurred from 31 to 603 days after initiation of Enzalutamide . In Study 2, 1 of 871 (0.1%) chemotherapy-naive patients treated with Enzalutamide and 1 of 844 (0.1%) patients treated with placebo experienced a seizure. Patients experiencing seizure were permanently discontinued from therapy and all seizure events resolved. There is no clinical trial experience re-administering Enzalutamide to patients who experienced seizure.
  • Because of the risk of seizure associated with Enzalutamide use, patients should be advised of the risk of engaging in any activity where sudden loss of consciousness could cause serious harm to themselves or others. Permanently discontinue Enzalutamide in patients who develop a seizure during treatment.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

  • Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
  • Two randomized clinical trials enrolled patients with metastatic prostate cancer that has progressed on androgen deprivation therapy (GnRH therapy or bilateral orchiectomy), a disease setting that is also defined as metastatic CRPC. In both studies, patients received Enzalutamide 160 mg orally once daily in the active treatment arm or placebo in the control arm. All patients continued androgen deprivation therapy. Patients were allowed, but not required, to take glucocorticoids.
Study 1: Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Following Chemotherapy
  • Study 1 enrolled 1199 patients with metastatic CRPC who had previously received docetaxel. The median duration of treatment was 8.3 months with Enzalutamide and 3.0 months with placebo. During the trial, 48% of patients on the Enzalutamide arm and 46% of patients on the placebo arm received glucocorticoids.
  • Grade 3 and higher adverse reactions were reported among 47% of Enzalutamide -treated patients and 53% of placebo-treated patients. Discontinuations due to adverse events were reported for 16% of Enzalutamide -treated patients and 18% of placebo-treated patients. The most common adverse reaction leading to treatment discontinuation was seizure, which occurred in 0.9% of the Enzalutamide -treated patients compared to none (0%) of the placebo-treated patients. TABLE 1 shows adverse reactions reported in Study 1 that occurred at a ≥ 2% higher frequency in the Enzalutamide arm compared to the placebo arm.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Study 2: Chemotherapy-naive Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
  • Study 2 enrolled 1717 patients with metastatic CRPC who had not received prior cytotoxic chemotherapy, of whom 1715 received at least one dose of study drug. The median duration of treatment was 17.5 months with Enzalutamide and 4.6 months with placebo. Grade 3-4 adverse reactions were reported in 44% of Enzalutamide -treated patients and 37% of placebo-treated patients. Discontinuations due to adverse events were reported for 6% of Enzalutamide -treated patients and 6% of placebo-treated patients. The most common adverse reaction leading to treatment discontinuation was fatigue/asthenia, which occurred in 1% of patients on each treatment arm. TABLE 2 includes adverse reactions reported in Study 2 that occurred at a ≥ 2% higher frequency in the Enzalutamide arm compared to the placebo arm.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Laboratory Abnormalities
  • In the two randomized clinical trials, Grade 1-4 neutropenia occurred in 15% of patients treated with Enzalutamide (1% Grade 3-4) and in 6% of patients treated with placebo (0.5% Grade 3-4). The incidence of Grade 1-4 thrombocytopenia was 6% of patients treated with Enzalutamide (0.3% Grade 3-4) and 5% of patients treated with placebo (0.5% Grade 3-4). Grade 1-4 elevations in ALT occurred in 10% of patients treated with Enzalutamide (0.2% Grade 3-4) and 16% of patients treated with placebo (0.2% Grade 3-4). Grade 1-4 elevations in bilirubin occurred in 3% of patients treated with Enzalutamide (0.1% Grade 3-4) and 2% of patients treated with placebo (no Grade 3-4).
Infections
  • In Study 1, 1% of patients treated with Enzalutamide compared to 0.3% of patients treated with placebo died from infections or sepsis. In Study 2, 1 patient in each treatment group (0.1%) had an infection resulting in death.
Falls and Fall-related Injuries
  • In the two randomized clinical trials, falls including fall-related injuries, occurred in 9% of patients treated with Enzalutamide compared to 4% of patients treated with placebo. Falls were not associated with loss of consciousness or seizure. Fall-related injuries were more severe in patients treated with Enzalutamide and included non-pathologic fractures, joint injuries, and hematomas.
Hypertension
  • In the two randomized trials, hypertension was reported in 11% of patients receiving Enzalutamide and 4% of patients receiving placebo. No patients experienced hypertensive crisis. Medical history of hypertension was balanced between arms. Hypertension led to study discontinuation in < 1% of patients in each arm.

Postmarketing Experience

There is limited information regarding Postmarketing Experience of Enzalutamide in the drug label.

Drug Interactions

Drugs that Inhibit or Induce CYP2C8
  • Co-administration of a strong CYP2C8 inhibitor (gemfibrozil) increased the composite area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of enzalutamide plus N-desmethyl enzalutamide by 2.2-fold in healthy volunteers. Co‑administration of Enzalutamide with strong CYP2C8 inhibitors should be avoided if possible. If co-administration of Enzalutamide with a strong CYP2C8 inhibitor cannot be avoided, reduce the dose of Enzalutamide
  • The effects of CYP2C8 inducers on the pharmacokinetics of enzalutamide have not been evaluated in vivo. Co-administration of Enzalutamide with strong or moderate CYP2C8 inducers (e.g., rifampin) may alter the plasma exposure of Enzalutamide and should be avoided if possible. Selection of a concomitant medication with no or minimal CYP2C8 induction potential is recommended .
Drugs that Inhibit or Induce CYP3A4
  • Co-administration of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor (itraconazole) increased the composite AUC of enzalutamide plus N-desmethyl enzalutamide by 1.3-fold in healthy volunteers.
Effect of Enzalutamide on Drug Metabolizing Enzymes

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA): X

Risk Summary
  • Enzalutamide can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman based on its mechanism of action and findings in animals. While there are no human data on the use of Enzalutamide in pregnancy and Enzalutamide is not indicated for use in women, it is important to know that maternal use of an androgen receptor inhibitor could affect development of the fetus. Enzalutamide caused embryo-fetal toxicity in mice at exposures that were lower than in patients receiving the recommended dose. Enzalutamide is contraindicated in women who are or may become pregnant while receiving the drug. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, apprise the patient of the potential hazard to the fetus and the potential risk for pregnancy loss. Advise females of reproductive potential to avoid becoming pregnant during treatment with Enzalutamide .
Animal Data
  • In an embryo-fetal developmental toxicity study in mice, enzalutamide caused developmental toxicity when administered at oral doses of 10 or 30 mg/kg/day throughout the period of organogenesis (gestational days 6-15). Findings included embryo-fetal lethality (increased post-implantation loss and resorptions) and decreased anogenital distance at ≥ 10 mg/kg/day, and cleft palate and absent palatine bone at 30 mg/kg/day. Doses of 30 mg/kg/day caused maternal toxicity. The doses tested in mice (1, 10 and 30 mg/kg/day) resulted in systemic exposures (AUC) approximately 0.04, 0.4 and 1.1 times, respectively, the exposures in patients. Enzalutamide did not cause developmental toxicity in rabbits when administered throughout the period of organogenesis (gestational days 6-18) at dose levels up to 10 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.4 times the exposures in patients based on AUC).


Pregnancy Category (AUS): There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Enzalutamide in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Enzalutamide during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

  • Enzalutamide is not indicated for use in women. It is not known if enzalutamide is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from Enzalutamide , a decision should be made to either discontinue nursing, or discontinue the drug taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

  • Safety and effectiveness of Enzalutamide in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatic Use

  • Of 1671 patients who received Enzalutamide in the two randomized clinical trials, 75% were 65 and over, while 31% were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Enzalutamide with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Enzalutamide with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

  • A dedicated renal impairment trial for Enzalutamide has not been conducted. Based on the population pharmacokinetic analysis using data from clinical trials in patients with metastatic CRPC and healthy volunteers, no significant difference in enzalutamide clearance was observed in patients with pre-existing mild to moderate renal impairment (30 mL/min ≤ creatinine clearance [CrCL] ≤ 89 mL/min) compared to patients and volunteers with baseline normal renal function (CrCL ≥ 90 mL/min). No initial dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. Severe renal impairment (CrCL < 30 mL/min) and end-stage renal disease have not been assessed

Hepatic Impairment

  • A dedicated hepatic impairment trial compared the composite systemic exposure of enzalutamide plus N-desmethyl enzalutamide in volunteers with baseline mild or moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A and B, respectively) versus healthy controls with normal hepatic function. The composite AUC of enzalutamide plus N-desmethyl enzalutamide was similar in volunteers with mild or moderate baseline hepatic impairment compared to volunteers with normal hepatic function. No initial dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with baseline mild or moderate hepatic impairment. Baseline severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) has not been assessed

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Enzalutamide in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Enzalutamide in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

  • Oral

Monitoring

  • If co-administration with warfarin cannot be avoided, conduct additional INR monitoring

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding IV Compatibility of Enzalutamide in the drug label.

Overdosage

  • In the event of an overdose, stop treatment with Enzalutamide and initiate general supportive measures taking into consideration the half-life of 5.8 days. In a dose escalation study, no seizures were reported at < 240 mg daily, whereas 3 seizures were reported, 1 each at 360 mg, 480 mg, and 600 mg daily. Patients may be at increased risk of seizure following an overdose.

Pharmacology

This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Mechanism of Action

  • Enzalutamide is an androgen receptor inhibitor that acts on different steps in the androgen receptor signaling pathway. Enzalutamide has been shown to competitively inhibit androgen binding to androgen receptors and inhibit androgen receptor nuclear translocation and interaction with DNA. A major metabolite, N-desmethyl enzalutamide, exhibited similar in vitro activity to enzalutamide. Enzalutamide decreased proliferation and induced cell death of prostate cancer cells in vitro, and decreased tumor volume in a mouse prostate cancer xenograft model.

Structure

  • Enzalutamide is an androgen receptor inhibitor. The chemical name is 4-{3-[4-cyano-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5,5-dimethyl-4-oxo-2-sulfanylideneimidazolidin-1-yl}-2-fluoro-N-methylbenzamide.
  • The molecular weight is 464.44 and molecular formula is C21H16F4N4O2S. The structural formula is:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Enzalutamide is a white crystalline non-hygroscopic solid. It is practically insoluble in water.
  • Enzalutamide is provided as liquid-filled soft gelatin capsules for oral administration. Each capsule contains 40 mg of enzalutamide as a solution in caprylocaproyl polyoxylglycerides. The inactive ingredients are caprylocaproyl polyoxylglycerides, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, gelatin, sorbitol sorbitan solution, glycerin, purified water, titanium dioxide, and black iron oxide.

Pharmacodynamics

There is limited information regarding Pharmacodynamics of Enzalutamide in the drug label.

Pharmacokinetics

  • The pharmacokinetics of enzalutamide and its major active metabolite (N-desmethyl enzalutamide) were evaluated in patients with metastatic CRPC and healthy male volunteers. The plasma enzalutamide pharmacokinetics are adequately described by a linear two-compartment model with first-order absorption.
Absorption
  • Following oral administration (Enzalutamide 160 mg daily) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, the median time to reach maximum plasma enzalutamide concentrations (Cmax) is 1 hour (range 0.5 to 3 hours). At steady state, the plasma mean Cmax values for enzalutamide and N-desmethyl enzalutamide are 16.6 μg/mL (23% CV) and 12.7 μg/mL (30% CV), respectively, and the plasma mean predose trough values are 11.4 μg/mL (26% CV) and 13.0 μg/mL (30% CV), respectively.
  • With the daily dosing regimen, enzalutamide steady state is achieved by Day 28, and enzalutamide accumulates approximately 8.3-fold relative to a single dose. Daily fluctuations in enzalutamide plasma concentrations are low (mean peak-to-trough ratio of 1.25). At steady state, enzalutamide showed approximately dose proportional pharmacokinetics over the daily dose range of 30 to 360 mg.
  • A single 160 mg oral dose of Enzalutamide was administered to healthy volunteers with a high-fat meal or in the fasted condition. A high-fat meal did not alter the AUC to enzalutamide or N-desmethyl enzalutamide. The results are summarized in Figure 1.
Distribution and Protein Binding
  • Enzalutamide is 97% to 98% bound to plasma proteins, primarily albumin. N-desmethyl enzalutamide is 95% bound to plasma proteins. In vitro, there was no protein binding displacement between enzalutamide and other highly protein bound drugs (warfarin, ibuprofen, and salicylic acid) at clinically relevant concentrations.
Metabolism
  • Following single oral administration of 14C-enzalutamide 160 mg, plasma samples were analyzed for enzalutamide and its metabolites up to 77 days post dose. Enzalutamide, N-desmethyl enzalutamide, and a major inactive carboxylic acid metabolite accounted for 88% of the 14C-radioactivity in plasma, representing 30%, 49%, and 10%, respectively, of the total 14C-AUC0-inf.
  • In vitro, human CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 are responsible for the metabolism of enzalutamide. Based on in vivo and in vitro data, CYP2C8 is primarily responsible for the formation of the active metabolite (N-desmethyl enzalutamide).
Elimination
  • Enzalutamide is primarily eliminated by hepatic metabolism. Following single oral administration of14C-enzalutamide 160 mg, 85% of the radioactivity is recovered by 77 days post dose: 71% is recovered in urine (including only trace amounts of enzalutamide and N-desmethyl enzalutamide), and 14% is recovered in feces (0.4% of dose as unchanged enzalutamide and 1% as N-desmethyl enzalutamide).
  • The mean apparent clearance (CL/F) of enzalutamide in patients after a single oral dose is 0.56 L/h (range 0.33 to 1.02 L/h).
  • The mean terminal half-life (t1/2) for enzalutamide in patients after a single oral dose is 5.8 days (range 2.8 to 10.2 days). Following a single 160 mg oral dose of enzalutamide in healthy volunteers, the mean terminal t1/2 for N-desmethyl enzalutamide is approximately 7.8 to 8.6 days.

Pharmacokinetics in Special Populations

Renal Impairment
  • A population pharmacokinetic analysis (based on pre-existing renal function) was carried out with data from 59 healthy male volunteers and 926 patients with metastatic CRPC enrolled in clinical trials, including 512 with normal renal function (CrCL ≥ 90 mL/min), 332 with mild renal impairment (CrCL 60 to < 90 mL/min), 88 with moderate renal impairment (CrCL 30 to < 60 mL/min), and 1 with severe renal impairment (CrCL < 30 mL/min). The apparent clearance of enzalutamide was similar in patients with pre-existing mild and moderate renal impairment (CrCL 30 to < 90 mL/min) compared to patients and volunteers with normal renal function. The potential effect of severe renal impairment or end stage renal disease on enzalutamide pharmacokinetics cannot be determined as clinical and pharmacokinetic data are available from only one patient
Hepatic Impairment
  • The plasma pharmacokinetics of enzalutamide and N-desmethyl enzalutamide were examined in volunteers with normal hepatic function (N = 16) and with pre-existing mild (N = 8, Child-Pugh Class A) or moderate (N = 8, Child-Pugh B) hepatic impairment. Enzalutamide was administered as a single 160 mg dose. The composite AUC of enzalutamide plus N-desmethyl enzalutamide was similar in volunteers with mild or moderate baseline hepatic impairment compared to volunteers with normal hepatic function. The results are summarized in Figure 1. Clinical and pharmacokinetic data are not available for patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
  • Long-term animal studies have not been conducted to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of enzalutamide.
  • Enzalutamide did not induce mutations in the bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) assay and was not genotoxic in either the in vitro mouse lymphoma thymidine kinase (Tk) gene mutation assay or the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay.
  • Based on nonclinical findings in repeat-dose toxicology studies, which were consistent with the pharmacological activity of enzalutamide, male fertility may be impaired by treatment with Enzalutamide . In a 26-week study in rats, atrophy of the prostate and seminal vesicles was observed at ≥ 30 mg/kg/day (equal to the human exposure based on AUC). In 4-, 13-, and 39-week studies in dogs, hypospermatogenesis and atrophy of the prostate and epididymides were observed at ≥ 4 mg/kg/day (0.3 times the human exposure based on AUC).

Clinical Studies

  • The efficacy and safety of Enzalutamide in patients with metastatic CRPC were demonstrated in two randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter phase 3 clinical trials. All patients continued on GnRH therapy or had prior bilateral orchitectomy. Patients were allowed, but not required, to continue or initiate glucocorticoids.
Study 1: Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Following Chemotherapy
  • A total of 1199 patients who had received prior docetaxel-based chemotherapy were randomized 2:1 to receive either Enzalutamide orally at a dose of 160 mg once daily (N=800) or placebo orally once daily (N=399). Study treatment continued until disease progression (evidence of radiographic progression, a skeletal-related event, or clinical progression), initiation of new systemic antineoplastic treatment, unacceptable toxicity, or withdrawal. Patients with a previous history of seizure, taking medicines known to decrease the seizure threshold, or with other risk factors for seizure were not eligible.
  • The following patient demographics and baseline disease characteristics were balanced between the treatment arms. The median age was 69 years (range 41-92) and the racial distribution was 92.7% Caucasian, 3.9% Black, 1.1% Asian, and 2.1% Other. Ninety-two percent of patients had an ECOG performance status score of 0-1 and 28% had a mean Brief Pain Inventory score of ≥ 4. Ninety-one percent of patients had metastases in bone and 23% had visceral involvement in the lung and/or liver. Fifty-nine percent of patients had radiographic evidence of disease progression and 41% had PSA-only progression on study entry. All patients had received prior docetaxel-based therapy and 24% had received two cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens. During the trial, 48% of patients on the Enzalutamide arm and 46% of patients on the placebo arm received glucocorticoids.
  • A statistically significant improvement in overall survival was demonstrated at the pre-specified interim analysis at the time of 520 deaths in patients on the Enzalutamide arm compared to patients on the placebo arm (TABLE 3 and Figure 3).
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Study 2: Chemotherapy-naive Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
  • In Study 2, 1717 chemotherapy-naive patients were randomized 1:1 to receive either Enzalutamide orally at a dose of 160 mg once daily (N=872) or placebo orally once daily (N=845). Patients with visceral metastases, patients with a history of mild to moderate heart failure (NYHA class I or II), and patients taking medications associated with lowering the seizure threshold were allowed. Patients with a previous history of seizure or a condition that might predispose to seizure and patients with moderate or severe pain from prostate cancer were excluded. Study treatment continued until disease progression (evidence of radiographic progression, a skeletal-related event, or clinical progression) and the initiation of a cytotoxic chemotherapy or an investigational agent, unacceptable toxicity, or withdrawal. Overall survival and radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) were assessed. Radiographic progression was assessed with the use of sequential imaging and was defined by bone scan identification of 2 or more new bone lesions with confirmation (Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Working Group 2 criteria) and/or Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST v 1.1) criteria for progression of soft tissue lesions. The primary analysis of rPFS utilized centrally reviewed radiographic assessment of progression.
  • Patient demographics and baseline disease characteristics were balanced between the treatment arms at entry. The median age was 71 years (range 42-93) and the racial distribution was 77% Caucasian, 10% Asian, 2% Black and 11% Other. The ECOG performance status score was 0 for 68% of patients, and 1 for 32% of patients. Baseline pain assessment was 0-1 (asymptomatic) in 67% of patients, and 2-3 (mildly symptomatic) in 32% of patients as defined by the Brief Pain Inventory Short Form (worst pain over past 24 hours at study entry). Fifty-four percent of patients had radiographic evidence of disease progression and 43% had PSA-only progression. Twelve percent of patients had visceral (lung and/or liver) disease involvement. During the study, 27% of patients on the Enzalutamide arm and 30% of patients on the placebo arm received glucocorticoids for varying reasons.
  • A statistically significant improvement in overall survival was demonstrated at the pre-specified interim analysis, conducted after 540 deaths in patients treated with Enzalutamide compared to those treated with placebo (TABLE 4, Figure 4). Forty percent of Enzalutamide -treated and 70% of placebo-treated patients received subsequent therapies for metastatic CRPC that may prolong overall survival.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Time to initiation of cytotoxic chemotherapy was prolonged after Enzalutamide treatment, with a median of 28.0 months for patients on the Enzalutamide arm versus a median of 10.8 months for patients on the placebo arm [HR=0.35 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.40), p < 0.0001)].
  • The median time to first skeletal‑related event was 31.1 months for patients on the Enzalutamide arm versus 31.3 months for patients on the placebo arm [HR = 0.72 (95% CI: 0.61, 0.84), p < 0.0001]. A skeletal‑related event was defined as radiation therapy or surgery to bone for prostate cancer, pathologic bone fracture, spinal cord compression, or change of antineoplastic therapy to treat bone pain.

There is limited information regarding Clinical Studies of Enzalutamide in the drug label.

How Supplied

  • Enzalutamide (enzalutamide) 40 mg capsules are supplied as white to off-white oblong soft gelatin capsules imprinted in black ink with ENZ. Enzalutamide capsules are available in the following package sizes:
  • Bottles of 120 capsules (NDC 0469-0125-99)

Storage

  • Recommended storage: Store Enzalutamide capsules at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F) in a dry place and keep the container tightly closed. Excursions permitted from 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F).

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Patient Counseling Information

  • Instruct patients to take their dose at the same time each day (once daily). Enzalutamide can be taken with or without food. Each capsule should be swallowed whole. Do not chew, dissolve, or open the capsules.*Inform patients receiving GnRH therapy that they need to maintain this treatment during the course of treatment with Enzalutamide .
  • Inform patients that Enzalutamide has been associated with an increased risk of seizure. Discuss conditions that may predispose to seizures and medications that may lower the seizure threshold. Advise patients of the risk of engaging in any activity where sudden loss of consciousness could cause serious harm to themselves or others. Inform patients to contact their physician right away if they have loss of consciousness or seizure.
  • Inform patients that they should not interrupt, modify the dose, or stop Enzalutamide without first consulting their physician. Inform patients that if they miss a dose, then they should take it as soon as they remember. If they forget to take the dose for the whole day, then they should take their normal dose the next day. They should not take more than their prescribed dose per day.
  • Apprise patients of the most common side effects associated with Enzalutamide : asthenia/fatigue, back pain, decreased appetite, constipation, arthralgia, diarrhea, hot flush, upper respiratory tract infection, peripheral edema, dyspnea, musculoskeletal pain, weight decreased, headache, hypertension, and dizziness/vertigo. Direct the patient to a complete list of adverse drug reactions.
  • Inform patients that Enzalutamide may cause infections, falls and fall-related injuries, and hypertension.
  • Inform patients that Enzalutamide can be harmful to a developing fetus. Patients should also be informed that they should use a condom if having sex with a pregnant woman. A condom and another effective method of birth control should be used if the patient is having sex with a woman of child-bearing potential. These measures are required during and for three months after treatment with Enzalutamide .

Precautions with Alcohol

  • Alcohol-Enzalutamide interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

  • Xtandi®

Look-Alike Drug Names

  • A® — B®

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.