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External IDsGeneCards: [1]
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



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HERV-R_7q21.2 provirus ancestral Env polyprotein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ERV3 gene.[1][2][3]


The human genome includes many retroelements including the human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). ERV3, one of the most studied HERVs, is thought to have integrated 30 to 40 million years ago and is present in higher primates with the exception of gorillas. Taken together, the observation of genome conservation, the detection of transcript expression, and the presence of conserved ORFs is circumstantial evidence for a functional role. A functional role is also suggested by the observation that downregulation of ERV3 is reported in choriocarcinoma.[3]


  1. Kato N, Shimotohno K, VanLeeuwen D, Cohen M (August 1990). "Human proviral mRNAs down regulated in choriocarcinoma encode a zinc finger protein related to Krüppel". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 10 (8): 4401–5. doi:10.1128/mcb.10.8.4401. PMC 361000. PMID 2115127.
  2. O'Connell C, O'Brien S, Nash WG, Cohen M (October 1984). "ERV3, a full-length human endogenous provirus: chromosomal localization and evolutionary relationships". Virology. 138 (2): 225–35. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(84)90347-7. PMID 6495650.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Entrez Gene: ERV3 endogenous retroviral sequence 3 (includes zinc finger protein H-plk/HPF9)".

Further reading

  • Sasaki T (November 1991). "[Integration and expression of human endogenous retrovirus]". [Hokkaido Igaku Zasshi] the Hokkaido Journal of Medical Science. 66 (6): 794–803. PMID 1783368.
  • Kato N, Pfeifer-Ohlsson S, Kato M, Larsson E, Rydnert J, Ohlsson R, Cohen M (July 1987). "Tissue-specific expression of human provirus ERV3 mRNA in human placenta: two of the three ERV3 mRNAs contain human cellular sequences". Journal of Virology. 61 (7): 2182–91. PMC 254242. PMID 2884330.
  • Kato N, Larsson E, Cohen M (March 1988). "Absence of expression of a human endogenous retrovirus is correlated with choriocarcinoma". International Journal of Cancer. 41 (3): 380–5. doi:10.1002/ijc.2910410310. PMID 3346101.
  • Cohen M, Kato N, Larsson E (February 1988). "ERV3 human endogenous provirus mRNAs are expressed in normal and malignant tissues and cells, but not in choriocarcinoma tumor cells". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 36 (2): 121–8. doi:10.1002/jcb.240360203. PMID 3356751.
  • Cohen M, Powers M, O'Connell C, Kato N (December 1985). "The nucleotide sequence of the env gene from the human provirus ERV3 and isolation and characterization of an ERV3-specific cDNA". Virology. 147 (2): 449–58. doi:10.1016/0042-6822(85)90147-3. PMID 3840930.
  • O'Connell CD, Cohen M (December 1984). "The long terminal repeat sequences of a novel human endogenous retrovirus". Science. 226 (4679): 1204–6. doi:10.1126/science.6505687. PMID 6505687.
  • Venables PJ, Brookes SM, Griffiths D, Weiss RA, Boyd MT (August 1995). "Abundance of an endogenous retroviral envelope protein in placental trophoblasts suggests a biological function". Virology. 211 (2): 589–92. doi:10.1006/viro.1995.1442. PMID 7645262.
  • Larsson E, Andersson AC, Nilsson BO (1995). "Expression of an endogenous retrovirus (ERV3 HERV-R) in human reproductive and embryonic tissues--evidence for a function for envelope gene products". Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences. 99 (2): 113–20. doi:10.3109/03009739409179354. PMID 7716822.
  • Andersson AC, Merza M, Venables P, Pontén F, Sundström J, Cohen M, Larsson E (January 1996). "Elevated levels of the endogenous retrovirus ERV3 in human sebaceous glands". The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 106 (1): 125–8. doi:10.1111/1523-1747.ep12329612. PMID 8592062.
  • Larsson E, Venables P, Andersson AC, Fan W, Rigby S, Botling J, Oberg F, Cohen M, Nilsson K (April 1997). "Tissue and differentiation specific expression on the endogenous retrovirus ERV3 (HERV-R) in normal human tissues and during induced monocytic differentiation in the U-937 cell line". Leukemia. 11 Suppl 3: 142–4. PMID 9209323.
  • Sibata M, Ikeda H, Katumata K, Takeuchi K, Wakisaka A, Yoshoki T (April 1997). "Human endogenous retroviruses: expression in various organs in vivo and its regulation in vitro". Leukemia. 11 Suppl 3: 145–6. PMID 9209324.
  • Andersson AC, Svensson AC, Rolny C, Andersson G, Larsson E (February 1998). "Expression of human endogenous retrovirus ERV3 (HERV-R) mRNA in normal and neoplastic tissues". International Journal of Oncology. 12 (2): 309–13. doi:10.3892/ijo.12.2.309. PMID 9458354.
  • de Parseval N, Heidmann T (April 1998). "Physiological knockout of the envelope gene of the single-copy ERV-3 human endogenous retrovirus in a fraction of the Caucasian population". Journal of Virology. 72 (4): 3442–5. PMC 109847. PMID 9525678.
  • Rasmussen HB, Clausen J (November 1998). "Large number of polymorphic nucleotides and a termination codon in the env gene of the endogenous human retrovirus ERV3". Disease Markers. 14 (3): 127–33. doi:10.1155/1998/958379. PMID 10427470.
  • Lin L, Xu B, Rote NS (January 2000). "The cellular mechanism by which the human endogenous retrovirus ERV-3 env gene affects proliferation and differentiation in a human placental trophoblast model, BeWo". Placenta. 21 (1): 73–8. doi:10.1053/plac.1999.0443. PMID 10692254.
  • Kim H, Crow TJ, Hyun BH (2000). "Assignment of the endogenous retrovirus HERV-R (ERV3) to human chromosome 7q11.2 by radiation hybrid mapping". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 89 (1–2): 10. doi:10.1159/000015579. PMID 10894926.
  • Andersson AC, Venables PJ, Tönjes RR, Scherer J, Eriksson L, Larsson E (June 2002). "Developmental expression of HERV-R (ERV3) and HERV-K in human tissue". Virology. 297 (2): 220–5. doi:10.1006/viro.2002.1428. PMID 12083821.

External links

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.