Congestive heart failure echocardiography

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Congestive Heart Failure Microchapters


Patient Information


Historical Perspective



Systolic Dysfunction
Diastolic Dysfunction


Differentiating Congestive heart failure from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors


Natural History, Complications and Prognosis


Clinical Assessment

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings


Chest X Ray

Cardiac MRI


Exercise Stress Test

Myocardial Viability Studies

Cardiac Catheterization

Other Imaging Studies

Other Diagnostic Studies


Invasive Hemodynamic Monitoring

Medical Therapy:

Acute Pharmacotherapy
Chronic Pharmacotherapy in HFpEF
Chronic Pharmacotherapy in HFrEF
ACE Inhibitors
Angiotensin receptor blockers
Aldosterone Antagonists
Beta Blockers
Ca Channel Blockers
Positive Inotropics
Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor
Antiarrhythmic Drugs
Nutritional Supplements
Hormonal Therapies
Drugs to Avoid
Drug Interactions
Treatment of underlying causes
Associated conditions

Exercise Training

Surgical Therapy:

Biventricular Pacing or Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT)
Implantation of Intracardiac Defibrillator
Cardiac Surgery
Left Ventricular Assist Devices (LVADs)
Cardiac Transplantation

ACC/AHA Guideline Recommendations

Initial and Serial Evaluation of the HF Patient
Hospitalized Patient
Patients With a Prior MI
Sudden Cardiac Death Prevention
Surgical/Percutaneous/Transcather Interventional Treatments of HF
Patients at high risk for developing heart failure (Stage A)
Patients with cardiac structural abnormalities or remodeling who have not developed heart failure symptoms (Stage B)
Patients with current or prior symptoms of heart failure (Stage C)
Patients with refractory end-stage heart failure (Stage D)
Coordinating Care for Patients With Chronic HF
Quality Metrics/Performance Measures

Implementation of Practice Guidelines

Congestive heart failure end-of-life considerations

Specific Groups:

Special Populations
Patients who have concomitant disorders
Obstructive Sleep Apnea in the Patient with CHF
NSTEMI with Heart Failure and Cardiogenic Shock

Congestive heart failure echocardiography On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides


Ongoing Trials at Clinical

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Congestive heart failure echocardiography

CDC on Congestive heart failure echocardiography

Congestive heart failure echocardiography in the news

Blogs on Congestive heart failure echocardiography

Directions to Hospitals Treating Congestive heart failure echocardiography

Risk calculators and risk factors for Congestive heart failure echocardiography

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-In-Chief: Lakshmi Gopalakrishnan, M.B.B.S. [2];Seyedmahdi Pahlavani, M.D. [3];Edzel Lorraine Co, DMD, MD[4]


Echocardiography is commonly used to diagnose and monitor the progression of heart failure. This modality uses ultrasound to determine the stroke volume (SV, the amount of blood in the heart that exits the ventricles with each beat), the end-diastolic volume (EDV, the total amount of blood at the end of diastole), and the SV divided by the EDV, a value known as the ejection fraction (EF). In pediatrics, the shortening fraction is the preferred measure of systolic function.

Abnormalities Detected / Evaluated on Echocardiography in Congestive Heart Failure

The most useful diagnostic test in the evaluation of patients with or at risk for HF (eg, postacute MI) is a comprehensive 2-dimensional echocardiogram; coupled with Doppler flow studies, the transthoracic echocardiogram can identify abnormalities of myocardium, heart valves, and pericardium. Echocardiography can detect subclinical HF and predict[1] risk of subsequent events.

LVEF is reduced, LV structure is abnormal, and other structural abnormalities are present that could account for the clinical presentation. This information should be

Echocardiography can be used in the following ways:

Echocardiographic findings must be quantified, including numerical estimates of EF measurement, ventricular dimensions, wall thickness, calculations of ventricular volumes, and evaluation of chamber geometry and regional wall motion.

Documentation of LVEF is an HF quality-of-care performance measure.[2]

Right ventricular size and function as well as atrial size and dimensions should also be measured.

All valves should be evaluated for anatomic and flow abnormalities.

Many of these abnormalities are prognostically important and can be present without manifest HF.[3]

Serial echocardiographic evaluations are useful because evidence of cardiac reverse remodeling can provide important information in patients who have had a change in clinical status.

2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Heart Failure Guideline (DO NOT EDIT) [4]

Evaluation With Cardiac Imaging 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Heart Failure Guideline (DO NOT EDIT) [4]

Class I
"2. In patients with suspected or newly diagnosed HF, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) should be performed during initial evaluation to assess cardiac structure and function. [5] (Level of Evidence: C-LD) "
Class IIb
"7. In patients with HF and coronary artery disease (CAD) who are candidates for coronary revascularization, noninvasive stress imaging (stress echocardiography, single-photon emission CT [SPECT], CMR, or positron emission tomography [PET] may be considered for detection of myocardial ischemia to help guide coronary revascularization. [6][7][8][9][10] (Level of Evidence:B-NR) "

Vote on and Suggest Revisions to the Current Guidelines

Echocardiography videos




  1. Agha SA, Kalogeropoulos AP, Shih J, Georgiopoulou VV, Giamouzis G, Anarado P, Mangalat D, Hussain I, Book W, Laskar S, Smith AL, Martin R, Butler J (2009). "Echocardiography and risk prediction in advanced heart failure: incremental value over clinical markers". J. Card. Fail. 15 (7): 586–92. doi:10.1016/j.cardfail.2009.03.002. PMID 19700135.
  2. Bonow RO, Bennett S, Casey DE, Ganiats TG, Hlatky MA, Konstam MA, Lambrew CT, Normand SL, Pina IL, Radford MJ, Smith AL, Stevenson LW, Burke G, Eagle KA, Krumholz HM, Linderbaum J, Masoudi FA, Ritchie JL, Rumsfeld JS, Spertus JA (2005). "ACC/AHA Clinical Performance Measures for Adults with Chronic Heart Failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures (Writing Committee to Develop Heart Failure Clinical Performance Measures): endorsed by the Heart Failure Society of America". Circulation. 112 (12): 1853–87. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.170072. PMID 16160201.
  3. Yancy CW, Jessup M, Bozkurt B, Butler J, Casey DE, Drazner MH, Fonarow GC, Geraci SA, Horwich T, Januzzi JL, Johnson MR, Kasper EK, Levy WC, Masoudi FA, McBride PE, McMurray JJ, Mitchell JE, Peterson PN, Riegel B, Sam F, Stevenson LW, Tang WH, Tsai EJ, Wilkoff BL (2013). "2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines". J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 62 (16): e147–239. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2013.05.019. PMID 23747642.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Heidenreich PA, Bozkurt B, Aguilar D, Allen LA, Byun JJ, Colvin MM; et al. (2022). "2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines". Circulation. 145 (18): e876–e894. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000001062. PMID 35363500 Check |pmid= value (help).
  5. Tribouilloy C, Rusinaru D, Mahjoub H, Goissen T, Lévy F, Peltier M (2008). "Impact of echocardiography in patients hospitalized for heart failure: a prospective observational study". Arch Cardiovasc Dis. 101 (7–8): 465–73. doi:10.1016/j.acvd.2008.06.012. PMID 18848689.
  6. Allman KC, Shaw LJ, Hachamovitch R, Udelson JE (2002). "Myocardial viability testing and impact of revascularization on prognosis in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction: a meta-analysis". J Am Coll Cardiol. 39 (7): 1151–8. doi:10.1016/s0735-1097(02)01726-6. PMID 11923039.
  7. D'Egidio G, Nichol G, Williams KA, Guo A, Garrard L, deKemp R; et al. (2009). "Increasing benefit from revascularization is associated with increasing amounts of myocardial hibernation: a substudy of the PARR-2 trial". JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2 (9): 1060–8. doi:10.1016/j.jcmg.2009.02.017. PMID 19761983.
  8. Ling LF, Marwick TH, Flores DR, Jaber WA, Brunken RC, Cerqueira MD; et al. (2013). "Identification of therapeutic benefit from revascularization in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction: inducible ischemia versus hibernating myocardium". Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 6 (3): 363–72. doi:10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.112.000138. PMID 23595888.
  9. Orlandini A, Castellana N, Pascual A, Botto F, Cecilia Bahit M, Chacon C; et al. (2015). "Myocardial viability for decision-making concerning revascularization in patients with left ventricular dysfunction and coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis of non-randomized and randomized studies". Int J Cardiol. 182: 494–9. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.01.025. PMID 25617608.
  10. Desideri A, Cortigiani L, Christen AI, Coscarelli S, Gregori D, Zanco P; et al. (2005). "The extent of perfusion-F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography mismatch determines mortality in medically treated patients with chronic ischemic left ventricular dysfunction". J Am Coll Cardiol. 46 (7): 1264–9. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2005.06.057. PMID 16198841.
  11. Heidenreich PA, Bozkurt B, Aguilar D, Allen LA, Byun JJ, Colvin MM, Deswal A, Drazner MH, Dunlay SM, Evers LR, Fang JC, Fedson SE, Fonarow GC, Hayek SS, Hernandez AF, Khazanie P, Kittleson MM, Lee CS, Link MS, Milano CA, Nnacheta LC, Sandhu AT, Stevenson LW, Vardeny O, Vest AR, Yancy CW (May 2022). "2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines". Circulation. 145 (18): e895–e1032. doi:10.1161/CIR.0000000000001063. PMID 35363499 Check |pmid= value (help).
  12. Hunt SA, Abraham WT, Chin MH, Feldman AM, Francis GS, Ganiats TG, Jessup M, Konstam MA, Mancini DM, Michl K, Oates JA, Rahko PS, Silver MA, Stevenson LW, Yancy CW, Antman EM, Smith SC Jr, Adams CD, Anderson JL, Faxon DP, Fuster V, Halperin JL, Hiratzka LF, Jacobs AK, Nishimura R, Ornato JP, Page RL, Riegel B; American College of Cardiology; American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines; American College of Chest Physicians; International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation; Heart Rhythm Society. ACC/AHA 2005 Guideline Update for the Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Heart Failure in the Adult: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Update the 2001 Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Heart Failure): developed in collaboration with the American College of Chest Physicians and the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation. 2005 Sep 20; 112(12): e154-235. Epub 2005 Sep 13. PMID 16160202
  13. Jessup M, Abraham WT, Casey DE, Feldman AM, Francis GS, Ganiats TG et al. (2009) 2009 focused update: ACCF/AHA Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Heart Failure in Adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines: developed in collaboration with the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Circulation 119 (14):1977-2016. DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192064 PMID: 19324967

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