Chagas disease medical therapy
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Benznidazole and nifurtimox are the only antimicrobial therapies with proven efficacy against T. cruzi infection. Neither drug is FDA-approved, but can be obtained under investigational protocol. Either benznidazole or nifurtimox may be used to manage congenital infection, acute infection, and chronic infection (only among young patients < 50-55 years) including those with early cardiomyopathy.
- Benznidazole and nifurtimox are the only 2 antimicrobial agents that have demonstrated to be effective against T. cruzi infection.
- Neither benznidazole nor nifurtimox is FDA-approved in the treatment of T. cruzi, but are often used as investigational protocols.
Acute Chagas Disease
- Both benznizadole and nifurtimox are effective against acute T. cruzi infections with a cure rate that ranges from 80% to 90%.
Chronic Chagas Disease
- While it was thought that chronic Chagas disease cannot be managed by pharmacotherapy, new evidence from randomized and non-randomized trials demonstrated that young patients (age < 50-55 years of age) with chronic Chagas disease, including those with early cardiomyopathy, may be managed using long-term antitrypanosomal antimicrobial therapy.
- Seroconversion (seropositivity to seronegativity) may only occur several years following the beginning of antimicrobial therapy.
Congenital Chagas Disease
- Similar to acute Chagas disease, both benznizadole and nifurtimox are effective against acute T. cruzi infections. When managed early, the cure rate of congenital Chagas disease ranges from 80% to 90%.
- Chagas disease
- 1. Preferred regimen(1):
- 2. Preferred regimen(2):
Chagas heart disease
- In the past three decades, a consensus has emerged that parasite persistence is crucial to the development and progression of Chagas cardiomyopathy. It was believed that Antiparasitic treatment in the chronic phase of Chagas disease could prevent complications related to the disease. However, according to the results of the benefit trial, benznidazole seems to have no benefit for arresting disease progression in patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy.
- Bern C (2015). "Chagas' Disease". N Engl J Med. 373 (5): 456–66. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1410150. PMID 26222561.
- de Andrade AL, Zicker F, de Oliveira RM, Almeida Silva S, Luquetti A, Travassos LR; et al. (1996). "Randomised trial of efficacy of benznidazole in treatment of early Trypanosoma cruzi infection". Lancet. 348 (9039): 1407–13. PMID 8937280.
- Sosa Estani S, Segura EL, Ruiz AM, Velazquez E, Porcel BM, Yampotis C (1998). "Efficacy of chemotherapy with benznidazole in children in the indeterminate phase of Chagas' disease". Am J Trop Med Hyg. 59 (4): 526–9. PMID 9790423.
- "Parasites - American Trypanosomiasis (also known as Chagas Disease)".