Carcinoid syndrome surgery

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Parminder Dhingra, M.D. [2]


Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for carcinoid tumor. The feasibility of surgery depends on the stage of carcinoid tumor at diagnosis.


Surgery, if feasible, is the only curative therapy. If the tumor has metastasized (most commonly, to the liver), the tumor may be ineligible for surgery (unresectable), though there are many promising treatment modalities, such as radiolabeled octreotide, that are very effective in arresting the growth of the tumors and prolonging survival in patients with liver metastases.

Gastric Carcinoids

Duodenal carcinoids

  • Duodenal carcinoids smaller than 2 cm may be excised locally. Tumors between 1 cm and 2 cm, complete resection is ensured by operative full-thickness excision. Follow-up endoscopy is indicated.

Jejunal and Ileal Carcinoids

Appendiceal Carcinoids

Colonic Carcinoids

Rectal Carcinoids

Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

Definitive role of surgery in metastatic disease has not been established, conservative resections of the intestine mesenteric tumors, and fibrotic areas may improve symptoms and quality of life substantially in patients with metastatic hepatic, mesenteric, and peritoneal carcinoids.[1][8]

  • The primary tumor should be resected to prevent an emergency presentation with obstruction, perforation, or bleeding if the condition of the patient is such that surgery is not a greater risk than the disease
  • Management of hepatic metastases may include:
  1. Surgical resection
  2. Hepatic artery embolization
  3. Cryoablation
  4. Radiofrequency ablation
  5. Orthotopic liver transplantation.

Recurrent gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

Treatment of recurrent gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor depends on many factors:[1]

  • Previous treatment
  • Site of recurrence
  • Individual patient considerations

Carcinoid heart disease

  • Valve replacement is the most effective treatment option for advanced carcinoid heart disease."Carcinoid Valve Disease | SpringerLink".[9]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Treatment Option Overview for gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors.<ref name="pmid12972355">Kulke MH (October 2003). "Neuroendocrine tumours: clinical presentation and management of localized disease". Cancer Treat. Rev. 29 (5): 363–70. PMID 12972355.
    • Type II carcinoids,the surgery is focused on removing the source of hypergastrinemia, typically by excision of duodenal gastrinomas via duodenotomy with resection of lymph node metastases.<ref name="pmid9298884">Bordi C, Falchetti A, Azzoni C, D'Adda T, Canavese G, Guariglia A, Santini D, Tomassetti P, Brandi ML (September 1997). "Aggressive forms of gastric neuroendocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type I". Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 21 (9): 1075–82. PMID 9298884.
  2. Callahan AF, White M, Ituarte P, Gagandeep S, Woo Y, Fong Y, Melstrom L (September 2018). "Surgical Intervention in Gastric Carcinoid is Associated With Improved Survival in Local and Regional Disease". Am. J. Clin. Oncol. 41 (9): 882–887. doi:10.1097/COC.0000000000000392. PMID 28763328.
  3. Dias AR, Azevedo BC, Alban L, Yagi OK, Ramos M, Jacob CE, Barchi LC, Cecconello I, Ribeiro U, Zilberstein B (2017). "GASTRIC NEUROENDOCRINE TUMOR: REVIEW AND UPDATE". Arq Bras Cir Dig. 30 (2): 150–154. doi:10.1590/0102-6720201700020016. PMC 5543797. PMID 29257854. Vancouver style error: initials (help)
  4. Mullen JT, Wang H, Yao JC, Lee JH, Perrier ND, Pisters PW, Lee JE, Evans DB (December 2005). "Carcinoid tumors of the duodenum". Surgery. 138 (6): 971–7, discussion 977–8. doi:10.1016/j.surg.2005.09.016. PMID 16360380.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Zyromski NJ, Kendrick ML, Nagorney DM, Grant CS, Donohue JH, Farnell MB, Thompson GB, Farley DR, Sarr MG (2001). "Duodenal carcinoid tumors: how aggressive should we be?". J. Gastrointest. Surg. 5 (6): 588–93. PMID 12086896.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Boudreaux JP, Klimstra DS, Hassan MM, Woltering EA, Jensen RT, Goldsmith SJ, Nutting C, Bushnell DL, Caplin ME, Yao JC (August 2010). "The NANETS consensus guideline for the diagnosis and management of neuroendocrine tumors: well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the Jejunum, Ileum, Appendix, and Cecum". Pancreas. 39 (6): 753–66. doi:10.1097/MPA.0b013e3181ebb2a5. PMID 20664473.
  7. Mani S, Modlin IM, Ballantyne G, Ahlman H, West B (August 1994). "Carcinoids of the rectum". J. Am. Coll. Surg. 179 (2): 231–48. PMID 8044398.
  8. Modlin, Irvin M.; Lye, Kevin D.; Kidd, Mark (2003). "A 5-decade analysis of 13,715 carcinoid tumors". Cancer. 97 (4): 934–959. doi:10.1002/cncr.11105. ISSN 0008-543X.
  9. Connolly HM, Schaff HV, Abel MD, Rubin J, Askew JW, Li Z, Inda JJ, Luis SA, Nishimura RA, Pellikka PA (November 2015). "Early and Late Outcomes of Surgical Treatment in Carcinoid Heart Disease". J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 66 (20): 2189–2196. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2015.09.014. PMID 26564596.

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