Capillary leak syndrome prevention

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-In-Chief: M. Hassan, M.B.B.S


A few prophylactic treatments have been tried with variable results, principally terbutaline and theophylline.


The prevention of episodes of SCLS has involved two approaches. The first has long been identified with the Mayo Clinic and it recommends treatment with beta agonists such as theophylline, terbutaline and montelukast sodium.[1] The second, more recent approach pioneered in France involves monthly intravenous infusions of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and the growing case-report evidence is encouraging.[2][3][4][5]

A recent review of clinical experience with 28 European SCLS patients suggests that either prophylactic treatment may reduce the frequency and severity of attacks and may improve survival.[6]


  1. Droder, RM; Kyle, RA; Greipp, PR (1992). "Control of systemic capillary leak syndrome with aminophylline and terbutaline". The American Journal of Medicine. 92 (5): 523–6. doi:10.1016/0002-9343(92)90749-2. PMID 1580299.
  2. Lambert, Marc; Launay, David; Hachulla, Eric; Morell-Dubois, Sandrine; Soland, Vincent; Queyrel, Viviane; Fourrier, François; Hatron, Pierre-Yves (2008). "High-dose intravenous immunoglobulins dramatically reverse systemic capillary leak syndrome". Critical Care Medicine. 36 (7): 2184–7. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e31817d7c71. PMID 18552679.
  3. Abgueguen, Pierre; Chennebault, Jean Marie; Pichard, Eric (2010). "Immunoglobulins for Treatment of Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome". The American Journal of Medicine. 123 (6): e3–4. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2009.09.034. PMID 20569743.
  4. Zipponi, Manuel; Eugster, Roland; Birrenbach, Tanja (2011). "High-dose intravenous immunoglobulins: A promising therapeutic approach for idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome". BMJ Case Reports. 2011. doi:10.1136/bcr.12.2010.3599.
  5. Pecker, Mark; Adams, Michael; Graham, Walter (2011). "The Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome: Comment". Annals of Internal Medicine. 155 (5): 335. doi:10.1059/0003-4819-155-5-201109060-00017. PMID 21893630.
  6. Gousseff, Marie; Arnaud, Laurent; Lambert, Marc; Hot, Arnaud; Hamidou, Mohamed; Duhaut, Pierre; Papo, Thomas; Soubrier, Martin; Ruivard, Marc (2011). "The Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome: A Case Series of 28 Patients From a European Registry". Annals of Internal Medicine. 154 (7): 464–71. doi:10.1059/0003-4819-154-7-201104050-00004. PMID 21464348.

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