The most common type of calcinosis is dystrophic calcification. This type of calcification can occur as a response to any soft tissue damage, including that involved in implantation of medical devices.
Hyperphosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis (HFTC) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder. Its principal clinical features are represented by ectopic periarticular calcifications associated with elevated levels of serum phosphate. HFTC is characterized by extensive phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. HFTC has been shown to result from mutations in two genes: GALNT3 and FGF23. All GALNT3 mutations reported up to March 2006 were identified in patients of either Middle Eastern or African-American extraction. The secretion of FGF23 requires O-glycosylation, which is selectively directed by GALNT3, to block processing of FGF23.
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