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RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



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CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CEBPD gene.[1][2]


The protein encoded by this intronless gene is a bZIP transcription factor which can bind as a homodimer to certain DNA regulatory regions. It can also form heterodimers with the related protein CEBP-alpha. The encoded protein is important in the regulation of genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses, and may be involved in the regulation of genes associated with activation and/or differentiation of macrophages.[3]


CEBPD is involved in regulation of apoptosis and cell proliferation. It probably acts as tumor suppressor.[4]

One study in mice showed that CEBPD prevents development of tubular injury and tubulointerstitial fibrogenesis during the progression of chronic obstructive nephropathy.[5]

Function of CEBPD gene can be effectively examined by siRNA knockdown based on an independent validation.[6]


CEBPD has been shown to interact with Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3.[7]

See also


  1. Cao Z, Umek RM, McKnight SL (Sep 1991). "Regulated expression of three C/EBP isoforms during adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells". Genes & Development. 5 (9): 1538–52. doi:10.1101/gad.5.9.1538. PMID 1840554.
  2. Williams SC, Cantwell CA, Johnson PF (Sep 1991). "A family of C/EBP-related proteins capable of forming covalently linked leucine zipper dimers in vitro". Genes & Development. 5 (9): 1553–67. doi:10.1101/gad.5.9.1553. PMID 1884998.
  3. "Entrez Gene: CEBPD CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), delta".
  4. Gery S, Tanosaki S, Hofmann WK, Koppel A, Koeffler HP (Feb 2005). "C/EBPdelta expression in a BCR-ABL-positive cell line induces growth arrest and myeloid differentiation". Oncogene. 24 (9): 1589–97. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1208393. PMID 15674331.
  5. Duitman J, Borensztajn KS, Pulskens WP, Leemans JC, Florquin S, Spek CA (Jan 2014). "CCAAT-enhancer binding protein delta (C/EBPδ) attenuates tubular injury and tubulointerstitial fibrogenesis during chronic obstructive nephropathy". Laboratory Investigation; A Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology. 94 (1): 89–97. doi:10.1038/labinvest.2013.127. PMID 24247561.
  6. Munkácsy, Gyöngyi; Sztupinszki, Zsófia; Herman, Péter; Bán, Bence; Pénzváltó, Zsófia; Szarvas, Nóra; Győrffy, Balázs (2016). "Validation of RNAi Silencing Efficiency Using Gene Array Data shows 18.5% Failure Rate across 429 Independent Experiments". Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids. 5. doi:10.1038/mtna.2016.66. ISSN 2162-2531. PMC 5056990. PMID 27673562.
  7. Choy L, Derynck R (Mar 2003). "Transforming growth factor-beta inhibits adipocyte differentiation by Smad3 interacting with CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) and repressing C/EBP transactivation function". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (11): 9609–19. doi:10.1074/jbc.M212259200. PMID 12524424.

Further reading

  • Sladek FM, Darnell JE (Apr 1992). "Mechanisms of liver-specific gene expression". Current Opinion in Genetics & Development. 2 (2): 256–9. doi:10.1016/S0959-437X(05)80282-5. PMID 1638120.
  • Kinoshita S, Akira S, Kishimoto T (Feb 1992). "A member of the C/EBP family, NF-IL6 beta, forms a heterodimer and transcriptionally synergizes with NF-IL6". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 89 (4): 1473–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.4.1473. PMC 48473. PMID 1741402.
  • Nagulapalli S, Pongubala JM, Atchison ML (Nov 1995). "Multiple proteins physically interact with PU.1. Transcriptional synergy with NF-IL6 beta (C/EBP delta, CRP3)". Journal of Immunology. 155 (9): 4330–8. PMID 7594592.
  • Wood S, Schertzer M, Yaremko ML (1995). "Sequence identity locates CEBPD and FGFR1 to mapped human loci within proximal 8p". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 70 (3–4): 188–91. doi:10.1159/000134030. PMID 7789168.
  • Cleutjens CB, van Eekelen CC, van Dekken H, Smit EM, Hagemeijer A, Wagner MJ, Wells DE, Trapman J (May 1993). "The human C/EBP delta (CRP3/CELF) gene: structure and chromosomal localization". Genomics. 16 (2): 520–3. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1220. PMID 8314590.
  • Chen PL, Riley DJ, Chen Y, Lee WH (Nov 1996). "Retinoblastoma protein positively regulates terminal adipocyte differentiation through direct interaction with C/EBPs". Genes & Development. 10 (21): 2794–804. doi:10.1101/gad.10.21.2794. PMID 8946919.
  • Xia C, Cheshire JK, Patel H, Woo P (Dec 1997). "Cross-talk between transcription factors NF-kappa B and C/EBP in the transcriptional regulation of genes". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 29 (12): 1525–39. doi:10.1016/S1357-2725(97)00083-6. PMID 9570146.
  • Zhu Y, Saunders MA, Yeh H, Deng WG, Wu KK (Mar 2002). "Dynamic regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 promoter activity by isoforms of CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (9): 6923–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M108075200. PMID 11741938.
  • Angeloni D, Lee JD, Johnson BE, Teh BT, Dean M, Lerman MI, Sterneck E (Dec 2001). "C306A single nucleotide polymorphism in the human CEBPD gene that maps at 8p11.1-p11.2". Molecular and Cellular Probes. 15 (6): 395–7. doi:10.1006/mcpr.2001.0377. PMID 11851384.
  • Gao H, Parkin S, Johnson PF, Schwartz RC (Oct 2002). "C/EBP gamma has a stimulatory role on the IL-6 and IL-8 promoters". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (41): 38827–37. doi:10.1074/jbc.M206224200. PMID 12177065.
  • Dearth LR, DeWille J (Mar 2003). "Posttranscriptional and posttranslational regulation of C/EBP delta in G0 growth-arrested mammary epithelial cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (13): 11246–55. doi:10.1074/jbc.M207930200. PMID 12554732.
  • Milde-Langosch K, Löning T, Bamberger AM (May 2003). "Expression of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins C/EBPalpha, C/EBPbeta and C/EBPdelta in breast cancer: correlations with clinicopathologic parameters and cell-cycle regulatory proteins". Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 79 (2): 175–85. doi:10.1023/A:1023929504884. PMID 12825852.
  • Kovács KA, Steinmann M, Magistretti PJ, Halfon O, Cardinaux JR (Sep 2003). "CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein family members recruit the coactivator CREB-binding protein and trigger its phosphorylation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (38): 36959–65. doi:10.1074/jbc.M303147200. PMID 12857754.
  • Chen YW, Hubal MJ, Hoffman EP, Thompson PD, Clarkson PM (Dec 2003). "Molecular responses of human muscle to eccentric exercise". Journal of Applied Physiology. 95 (6): 2485–94. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01161.2002. PMID 12937035.
  • Li R, Strohmeyer R, Liang Z, Lue LF, Rogers J (Sep 2004). "CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (C/EBPdelta) expression and elevation in Alzheimer's disease". Neurobiology of Aging. 25 (8): 991–9. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2003.10.016. PMID 15212823.
  • Sivko GS, Sanford DC, Dearth LD, Tang D, DeWille JW (Nov 2004). "CCAAT/Enhancer binding protein delta (c/EBPdelta) regulation and expression in human mammary epithelial cells: II. Analysis of activating signal transduction pathways, transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational control". Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. 93 (4): 844–56. doi:10.1002/jcb.20224. PMID 15389878.

External links

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.