Budd-Chiari syndrome causes
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Budd-Chiari syndrome is associated with a wide range of etiologies. On the basis of underlying cause Budd- Chairi syndrome can be primary (75%) caused by thrombosis of the hepatic vein or secondary (25%) caused by invasion/compression of the hepatic vein by an outside structure such as a tumor, abscess or cysts. Causes include myeloproliferative disorders, malignancy, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, antiphospholipid syndrome, factor V leiden mutation, infections and benign liver lesions, oral contraceptives and pregnancy, hypercoagulable states, Behçet's syndrome, membranous webs.
- Budd-Chiari syndrome is associated with a wide range of etiologies.
- On the basis of underlying cause Budd- Chairi can be:
- Myeloproliferative disorders:
- Myeloproliferative and other hemotologic abnormalities are one of the most common causes of Budd Chiari Syndrome.
- V617F mutation in Janus tyrosine kinase-2 (JAK2) is found in 80% of patients with polycythemia vera and 50% of patients with essential thrombocythemia or idiopathic myelofibrosis. Budd Chiari syndrome patients that test negative for this mutation should have bone marrow biopsy performed.
- Other associated hematologic causes include:
- Malignancy is commonly associated with compression or invasion of vessels and hypercoagulable state.
- Budd-Chiari is commonly associated with
- Infections and benign liver lesions
- Oral contraceptives and pregnancy
- Other hypercoagulable states
Hypercoagulable conditions associated with Budd-Chiari include:
- Behçet's syndrome
- Membranous webs are usually are found near the entrance of the right hepatic vein into the inferior vena cava, may be due to a congenital anomaly or a myeloproliferative disease.
- More common in patients from South Africa, India, and Asia. Potentially treatable cause of Budd-chiari.
- Miscellaneous causes of the Budd-Chiari syndrome include:
- Upto 20 percent of cases of the Budd-Chiari syndrome are idiopathic.
- Afredj N, Guessab N, Nani A, Faraoun SA, Ouled Cheikh I, Kerbouche R, Hannoun D, Amir ZC, Ait Kaci H, Bentabak K, Plessier A, Valla DC, Cazals-Hatem V, Denninger MH, Boucekkine T, Debzi N (2015). "Aetiological factors of Budd-Chiari syndrome in Algeria". World J Hepatol. 7 (6): 903–9. doi:10.4254/wjh.v7.i6.903. PMC 4411532. PMID 25937867.
- Lin M, Zhang F, Wang Y, Zhang B, Zhang W, Zou X, Zhang M, Zhuge Y (2017). "Liver cirrhosis caused by chronic Budd-Chiari syndrome". Medicine (Baltimore). 96 (34): e7425. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000007425. PMC 5571988. PMID 28834866.
- Martens P, Nevens F (2015). "Budd-Chiari syndrome". United European Gastroenterol J. 3 (6): 489–500. doi:10.1177/2050640615582293. PMC 4669515. PMID 26668741.
- Merz WM, Rüland AM, Hippe V, Poetzsch B, Meyer C, Pollok JM, Gembruch U, Trebicka J (2016). "Pregnancy in Budd-Chiari Syndrome: Case Report and Proposed Risk Score". Medicine (Baltimore). 95 (22): e3817. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000003817. PMC 4900734. PMID 27258526.