Apraclonidine

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Apraclonidine
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Vignesh Ponnusamy, M.B.B.S. [2]

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Overview

Apraclonidine is a alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that is FDA approved for the {{{indicationType}}} of postsurgical elevations in intraocular pressure that occur in patients after argon laser trabeculoplasty, argon laser iridotomy or Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy. Common adverse reactions include xerostomia, allergic conjunctivitis, blurred vision, conjunctivitis, eye discharge, dry eye, edema of eyelid, epiphora, foreign body sensation, itching of eye, mydriasis, ocular hyperemia, reduced visual acuity, and visual discomfort.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Postsurgical Elevations In Intraocular Pressure
  • IOPIDINE (apraclonidine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution) is indicated to control or prevent postsurgical elevations in intraocular pressure that occur in patients after argon laser trabeculoplasty, argon laser iridotomy or Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy.
  • One drop of IOPIDINE Ophthalmic Solution should be instilled in the scheduled operative eye one hour before initiating anterior segment laser surgery and a second drop should be instilled to the same eye immediately upon completion of the laser surgical procedure. Use a separate container for each single-drop dose and discard each container after use.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Apraclonidine in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

Cataract surgery - Ocular hypertension, Post-surgery; Prophylaxis
  • 1% apraclonidine administered prior to and at the end of surgery prevented significant increases in intraocular pressure.[1]

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

There is limited information regarding FDA-Labeled Use of Apraclonidine in pediatric patients.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Apraclonidine in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Apraclonidine in pediatric patients.

Contraindications

Warnings

  • FOR TOPICAL OPHTHALMIC USE ONLY. Not for injection or oral ingestion.

Precautions

  • Although the acute administration of two drops of IOPIDINE Ophthalmic Solution has minimal effect on heart rate or blood pressure in clinical studies evaluating patients undergoing anterior segment laser surgery, the preclinical pharmacologic profile of this drug suggests that caution should be observed in treating patients with severe cardiovascular disease including hypertension.
  • The possibility of a vasovagal attack occurring during laser surgery should be considered and caution used in patients with history of such episodes.
  • Topical ocular administration of two drops of 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% IOPIDINE Ophthalmic Solution to New Zealand Albino rabbits three times daily for one month resulted in sporadic and transient instances of minimal corneal cloudiness in the 1.5% group only. No histopathological changes were noted in those eyes. No adverse ocular effects were observed in cynomolgus monkeys treated with two drops of 1.5% IOPIDINE Ophthalmic Solution applied three times daily for three months. No corneal changes were observed in 320 humans given at least one dose of 1% IOPIDINE Ophthalmic Solution.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

  • The following adverse events, occurring in less than 2% of patients, were reported in association with the use of IOPIDINE® Ophthalmic Solution in laser surgery: ocular injection, upper lid elevation, irregular heart rate, nasal decongestion, ocular inflammation, conjunctival blanching, and mydriasis. The following adverse events were observed in investigational studies dosing IOPIDINE Ophthalmic Solution once or twice daily for up to 28 days in nonlaser studies:
Ocular

Conjunctival blanching, upper lid elevation, mydriasis, burning, discomfort, foreign body sensation, dryness, itching, hypotony, blurred or dimmed vision, allergic response, conjunctival microhemorrhage.

Gastrointestinal

Abdominal pain, diarrhea, stomach discomfort, emesis.

Cardiovascular

Bradycardia, vasovagal attack, palpitations, orthostatic episode.

Central Nervous System

Insomnia, dream disturbances, irritability, decreased libido.

Other

Taste abnormalities, dry mouth, nasal burning or dryness, headache, head cold sensation, chest heaviness or burning, clammy or sweaty palms, body heat sensation, shortness of breath, increased pharyngeal secretion, extremity pain or numbness, fatigue, paresthesia, pruritus not associated with rash.

Postmarketing Experience

There is limited information regarding Postmarketing Experience of Apraclonidine in the drug label.

Drug Interactions

  • Interactions with other agents have not been investigated.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA):

  • Pregnancy Category C
  • Apraclonidine HCl has been shown to have an embryocidal effect in rabbits when given in an oral dose of 3 mg/kg/day (150 times the maximum recommended human dose). Dose related maternal toxicity was observed in pregnant rats at 0.3 mg/kg/day (15 times the maximum recommended human dose). There are no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women. IOPIDINE 1% Ophthalmic Solution should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.


Pregnancy Category (AUS):

  • Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) Pregnancy Category

There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Apraclonidine in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Apraclonidine during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

  • It is not known if topically applied IOPIDINE Ophthalmic Solution is excreted in human milk. Decision should be made to discontinue nursing temporarily for the one day on which IOPIDINE Ophthalmic Solution is used.

Pediatric Use

  • Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatic Use

  • No overall differences in safety or effectiveness have been observed between elderly and younger patients.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Apraclonidine with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Apraclonidine with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Apraclonidine in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Apraclonidine in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Apraclonidine in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Apraclonidine in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

  • Topical

Monitoring

There is limited information regarding Monitoring of Apraclonidine in the drug label.

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding IV Compatibility of Apraclonidine in the drug label.

Overdosage

Acute Overdose

Chronic Overdose

There is limited information regarding Chronic Overdose of Apraclonidine in the drug label.

Pharmacology

Template:Px
Apraclonidine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
2,6-dichloro-N- (4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl) benzene-1,4-diamine
Identifiers
CAS number 66711-21-5
ATC code S01EA03
PubChem 2216
DrugBank DB00964
Chemical data
Formula Template:OrganicBox atomTemplate:OrganicBox atomTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBox atomTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBox atomTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBoxTemplate:OrganicBox 
Mol. mass 245.108 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability ?
Protein binding 98.7%
Metabolism ?
Half life 8 hours
Excretion ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

?

Legal status

Rx only

Routes Ophthalmic solution

Mechanism of Action

  • Apraclonidine is a relatively selective, alpha adrenergic agonist and does not have significant membrane stabilizing (local anesthetic) activity. When instilled into the eye, IOPIDINE (apraclonidine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution) has the action of reducing intraocular pressure.

Structure

  • IOPIDINE® Ophthalmic Solution contains apraclonidine hydrochloride, an alpha adrenergic agonist, in a sterile isotonic solution for topical application to the eye. Apraclonidine hydrochloride is a white to off-white powder and is highly soluble in water. Its chemical name is 2-[(4-amino-2,6 dichlorophenyl)imino] imidazolidine monohydrochloride with an empirical formula of C9H11Cl3N4 and a molecular weight of 281.6.
  • The chemical structure of apraclonidine hydrochloride is:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Each mL of IOPIDINE Ophthalmic Solution contains: Actives: apraclonidine hydrochloride 11.5 mg equivalent to apraclonidine base 10 mg. Preservative: benzalkonium chloride 0.01%. Inactives: sodium chloride, sodium acetate, sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid (pH 4.4-7.8) and purified water. Osmolality is 260-320 mOsm.

Pharmacodynamics

  • Ophthalmic apraclonidine has minimal effect on cardiovascular parameters. Optic nerve head damage and visual field loss may result from an acute elevation in intraocular pressure that can occur after argon or Nd:YAG laser surgical procedures. Elevated intraocular pressure, whether acute or chronic in duration, is a major risk factor in the pathogenesis of visual field loss. The higher the peak or spike of intraocular pressure, the greater the likelihood of visual field loss and optic nerve damage especially in patients with previously compromised optic nerves.

Pharmacokinetics

  • The onset of action with IOPIDINE Ophthalmic Solution can usually be noted within one hour and the maximum intraocular pressure reduction usually occurs three to five hours after application of a single dose. The precise mechanism of the ocular hypotensive action of IOPIDINE Ophthalmic Solution is not completely established at this time. Aqueous fluorophotometry studies in man suggest that its predominant action may be related to a reduction of aqueous formation. Controlled clinical studies of patients requiring argon laser trabeculoplasty, argon laser iridotomy or Nd:YAG posterior capsulotomy showed that IOPIDINE Ophthalmic Solution controlled or prevented the postsurgical intraocular pressure rise typically observed in patients after undergoing those procedures. After surgery, the mean intraocular pressure was 1.2 to 4 mmHg below the corresponding presurgical baseline pressure before IOPIDINE Ophthalmic Solution treatment. With placebo treatment, postsurgical pressures were 2.5 to 8.4 mmHg higher than their corresponding presurgical baselines.
  • Overall, only 2% of patients treated with IOPIDINE® Ophthalmic Solution had severe intraocular pressure elevations (spike≥10 mmHg) during the first three hours after laser surgery, whereas 23% of placebo-treated patients responded with severe pressure spikes (Table 1). Of the patients that experienced a pressure spike after surgery, the peak intraocular pressure was above 30 mmHg in most patients (Table 2) and was above 50 mmHg in seven placebo-treated patients and one IOPIDINE Ophthalmic Solution-treated patient.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Nonclinical Toxicology

  • No significant change in tumor incidence or type was observed following two years of oral administration of apraclonidine HCl to rats and mice at dosages of 1 and 0.6 mg/kg/day, up to 50 and 30 times, respectively, the maximum dose recommended for human topical ocular use. Apraclonidine HCl was not mutagenic in a series of in vitro mutagenicity tests, including the Ames test, a mouse lymphoma forward mutation assay, a chromosome aberration assay in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, a sister chromatid exchange assay in CHO cells, and a cell transformation assay. An in vivo mouse micronucleus assay conducted with apraclonidine HCl also provided no evidence of mutagenicity. Reproduction and fertility studies in rats showed no adverse effect on male or female fertility at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day (25 times the maximum recommended human dose).

Clinical Studies

There is limited information regarding Clinical Studies of Apraclonidine in the drug label.

How Supplied

  • IOPIDINE (apraclonidine hydrochloride ophthalmic solution), 1% as base is a sterile, isotonic, aqueous solution containing apraclonidine hydrochloride. Supplied as follows: 0.1 mL in plastic ophthalmic dispensers, packaged two per pouch. These dispensers are enclosed in a foil overwrap as an added barrier to evaporation.
  • 0.1 mL: NDC 0065-0660-10
  • STORAGE:
  • Store at 2°- 25°C (36°- 77°F).
  • Protect from light.

Storage

There is limited information regarding Apraclonidine Storage in the drug label.

Images

Drug Images

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Drug Name:
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Drug Label Author:

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Package and Label Display Panel

Apraclonidine03.png
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Apraclonidine04.png
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Apraclonidine05.png
This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Patient Counseling Information

There is limited information regarding Patient Counseling Information of Apraclonidine in the drug label.

Precautions with Alcohol

  • Alcohol-Apraclonidine interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

Look-Alike Drug Names

There is limited information regarding Apraclonidine Look-Alike Drug Names in the drug label.

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. Sterk CC, Renzenbrink-Bubberman AC, van Best JA (1998). "The effect of 1% apraclonidine on intraocular pressure after cataract surgery". Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 29 (6): 472–5. PMID 9640568.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "IOPIDINE apraclonidine hydrochloride solution".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>