Accommodative insufficiency

Jump to navigation Jump to search

WikiDoc Resources for Accommodative insufficiency


Most recent articles on Accommodative insufficiency

Most cited articles on Accommodative insufficiency

Review articles on Accommodative insufficiency

Articles on Accommodative insufficiency in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ


Powerpoint slides on Accommodative insufficiency

Images of Accommodative insufficiency

Photos of Accommodative insufficiency

Podcasts & MP3s on Accommodative insufficiency

Videos on Accommodative insufficiency

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Accommodative insufficiency

Bandolier on Accommodative insufficiency

TRIP on Accommodative insufficiency

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Accommodative insufficiency at Clinical

Trial results on Accommodative insufficiency

Clinical Trials on Accommodative insufficiency at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Accommodative insufficiency

NICE Guidance on Accommodative insufficiency


FDA on Accommodative insufficiency

CDC on Accommodative insufficiency


Books on Accommodative insufficiency


Accommodative insufficiency in the news

Be alerted to news on Accommodative insufficiency

News trends on Accommodative insufficiency


Blogs on Accommodative insufficiency


Definitions of Accommodative insufficiency

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Accommodative insufficiency

Discussion groups on Accommodative insufficiency

Patient Handouts on Accommodative insufficiency

Directions to Hospitals Treating Accommodative insufficiency

Risk calculators and risk factors for Accommodative insufficiency

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Accommodative insufficiency

Causes & Risk Factors for Accommodative insufficiency

Diagnostic studies for Accommodative insufficiency

Treatment of Accommodative insufficiency

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Accommodative insufficiency


Accommodative insufficiency en Espanol

Accommodative insufficiency en Francais


Accommodative insufficiency in the Marketplace

Patents on Accommodative insufficiency

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Accommodative insufficiency

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Ogheneochuko Ajari, MB.BS, MS [2]


Accommodative insufficiency (AI) involves the inability of the eye to focus properly on an object. Approximately 80 percent of children diagnosed with CI (convergence insufficiency) also demonstrate AI.


Common Causes

Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Anemia, arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, Down syndrome, myotonic dystrophy, thyroid disease
Chemical/Poisoning No underlying causes
Dental No underlying causes
Dermatologic Decompression sickness, measles
Drug Side Effect Antidepressants, antihistamines, ritalin, sulphasalazine
Ear Nose Throat Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, measles
Endocrine Diabetes mellitus, myotonic dystrophy, thyroid disease
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Chronic alcoholism, decompression sickness, diabetes mellitus, Down syndrome, measles, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, myotonic dystrophy, thyroid disease
Genetic Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, myotonic dystrophy
Hematologic Anemia
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease Influenza, whooping cough
Musculoskeletal/Orthopedic Decompression sickness, diabetes mellitus, Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, myotonic dystrophy
Neurologic Cerebral palsy, chronic alcoholism, decompression sickness, diabetes mellitus, Down syndrome, extreme fatigue, Fragile X syndrome, head trauma, left middle cerebral artery occlusion, measles, mild traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis
Nutritional/Metabolic Chronic alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition
Obstetric/Gynecologic Fragile X syndrome
Oncologic No underlying causes
Ophthalmologic Amblyopia, arteriosclerosis, astigmatism, cerebral palsy, convergence insufficiency, cycloplegia, decompression sickness, diabetes mellitus, Down syndrome, eye strain, Fragile X syndrome, hyperopia, inability of the ciliary body to contract, influenza, measles, mild traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, myopia, myotonic dystrophy, ocular inflammation, presbyopia, pseudomyopia, sclerosis of the crystalline lens, senile cataract, spasm of accommodation, thyroid disease, uveitis
Overdose/Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric Down syndrome, multiple sclerosis
Pulmonary Decompression sickness, influenza, measles, myasthenia gravis, whooping cough
Renal/Electrolyte Diabetes mellitus, Down syndrome
Rheumatology/Immunology/Allergy Myasthenia gravis
Sexual Fragile X syndrome, multiple sclerosis
Trauma Head trauma, mild traumatic brain injury, whiplash injuries
Urologic Multiple sclerosis
Miscellaneous Aging, altitude, extreme fatigue, eye strain, high stress, idiopathic, multiple sclerosis, video display terminals (VDT) users

Causes in Alphabetical Order



  1. Duke-Elder S. System of Ophthalmology, vol V Ophthalmic Optics and Refraction. St Louis, Mosby, 1970 451- 486.
  2. Cooper J. Accommodative dysfunction. In: Amos JF. Diagnosis and management in Vision Care. Boston: Butterworths, 1987 431-54.
  3. Daune A. Anomalies of Accommodation clinically considered. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1913 1 386- 400.
  4. Scheiman M, Wick B. Clinical management of binocular vision: Heterophoric, Accommodative, and Eye movement disorders. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2002: 334-369.
  5. Daum KM. Accommodative insuffi ciency. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1983a 60 352-359.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Roche O, Roumes C, Parsa C (2007). "[Techniques for measuring phakic and pseudophakic accommodation. Methodology for distinguishing between neurological and mechanical accommodative insufficiency]". J Fr Ophtalmol. 30 (9): 953–60. PMID 18046282.
  7. Lieppman ME (1981). "Accommodative and convergence insufficiency after decompression sickness". Arch Ophthalmol. 99 (3): 453–6. PMID 7213164.
  8. Amin VR, Maino DM (1995). "The fragile X female: a case report of the visual, visual perceptual, and ocular health findings". J Am Optom Assoc. 66 (5): 290–5. PMID 7629369.
  9. Ohtsuka K, Maekawa H, Takeda M, Uede N, Chiba S (1988). "Accommodation and convergence insufficiency with left middle cerebral artery occlusion". Am J Ophthalmol. 106 (1): 60–4. PMID 3394770.
  11. Matsui M, Enoki M, Matsui Y, Oono S, Ohta M, Suenaga A; et al. (1995). "Seronegative myasthenia gravis associated with atonic urinary bladder and accommodative insufficiency". J Neurol Sci. 133 (1–2): 197–9. PMID 8583227.
  12. Daum KM (1983). "Accommodative dysfunction". Doc Ophthalmol. 55 (3): 177–98. PMID 6884172.
  13. Magnus JH, Elverland HH, Olsen EG, Husby G (1993). "Facial palsy and partial accommodative insufficiency associated with sulphasalazine treatment in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis". Scand J Rheumatol. 22 (4): 199–201. PMID 8102809.
  14. Scheiman M (1996). "Accommodative and binocular vision disorders associated with video display terminals: diagnosis and management issues". J Am Optom Assoc. 67 (9): 531–9. PMID 8888886.

Template:WH Template:WS