Difference between revisions of "Sandbox: malabsorption"

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(Differential Diagnosis of Diarrhea)
 
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==Diarrhea==
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==Differential Diagnosis of Diarrhea==
 +
'''''To review the differential diagnosis of diarrhea, click here.'''''
  
<span style="font-size:85%">'''Abbreviations:'''
+
'''''To review the differential diagnosis of acute diarrhea, click here.'''''
'''GI:''' [[Gastrointestinal tract|Gastrointestinal]]; '''WBC:''' [[White blood cells]]; '''Plt:''' [[Platelet|Platelets]], '''Hgb:''' [[Hemoglobin]], '''IgE:''' [[Immunoglobulin E]], '''IgA:''' [[Immunoglobulin A]]  
+
 
</span>
+
'''''To review the differential diagnosis of chronic diarrhea, click here.'''''
 +
 
 +
'''''To review the differential diagnosis of traveler's diarrhea, click here.'''''
 +
 
 +
'''''To review the differential diagnosis of acute watery diarrhea, click here.'''''
 +
 
 +
'''''To review the differential diagnosis of acute bloody diarrhea, click here.'''''
 +
 
 +
'''''To review the differential diagnosis of acute fatty diarrhea, click here.'''''
 +
 
 +
'''''To review the differential diagnosis of chronic watery diarrhea, click here.'''''
 +
 
 +
'''''To review the differential diagnosis of chronic bloody diarrhea, click here.'''''
 +
 
 +
'''''To review the differential diagnosis of chronic fatty diarrhea, click here.'''''
 +
 
 +
'''''To review the differential diagnosis of acute diarrhea and fever, click here.'''''
 +
 
 +
'''''To review the differential diagnosis of chronic diarrhea and fever, click here.'''''
 +
 
 +
'''''To review the differential diagnosis of acute diarrhea and abdominal pain, click here.'''''
 +
 
 +
'''''To review the differential diagnosis of chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain, click here.'''''
 +
 
 +
'''''To review the differential diagnosis of acute diarrhea and weight loss, click here.'''''
 +
 
 +
'''''To review the differential diagnosis of chronic diarrhea and weight loss, click here.'''''
 +
===Diarrhea===
 +
'''The following table outlines the major differential diagnoses of diarrhea.'''<ref name="Casburn-JonesFarthing2004">{{cite journal|last1=Casburn-Jones|first1=Anna C|last2=Farthing|first2=Michael Jg|title=Traveler's diarrhea|journal=Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology|volume=19|issue=6|year=2004|pages=610–618|issn=0815-9319|doi=10.1111/j.1440-1746.2003.03287.x}}</ref><ref name="KamatMathur2006">{{cite journal|last1=Kamat|first1=Deepak|last2=Mathur|first2=Ambika|title=Prevention and Management of Travelers’ Diarrhea|journal=Disease-a-Month|volume=52|issue=7|year=2006|pages=289–302|issn=00115029|doi=10.1016/j.disamonth.2006.08.003}}</ref><ref name="PfeifferDuPont2012">{{cite journal|last1=Pfeiffer|first1=Margaret L.|last2=DuPont|first2=Herbert L.|last3=Ochoa|first3=Theresa J.|title=The patient presenting with acute dysentery – A systematic review|journal=Journal of Infection|volume=64|issue=4|year=2012|pages=374–386|issn=01634453|doi=10.1016/j.jinf.2012.01.006}}</ref><ref name="pmid24506120">{{cite journal |vauthors=Barr W, Smith A |title=Acute diarrhea |journal=Am Fam Physician |volume=89 |issue=3 |pages=180–9 |year=2014 |pmid=24506120 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid29255768">{{cite journal |vauthors=Amil Dias J |title=Celiac Disease: What Do We Know in 2017? |journal=GE Port J Gastroenterol |volume=24 |issue=6 |pages=275–278 |year=2017 |pmid=29255768 |doi=10.1159/000479881 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid29254859">{{cite journal |vauthors=Kotloff KL, Riddle MS, Platts-Mills JA, Pavlinac P, Zaidi AKM |title=Shigellosis |journal=Lancet |volume= |issue= |pages= |year=2017 |pmid=29254859 |doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(17)33296-8 |url=}}</ref><ref name="Yamamoto-FurushoBosques-Padilla2017">{{cite journal|last1=Yamamoto-Furusho|first1=J.K.|last2=Bosques-Padilla|first2=F.|last3=de-Paula|first3=J.|last4=Galiano|first4=M.T.|last5=Ibañez|first5=P.|last6=Juliao|first6=F.|last7=Kotze|first7=P.G.|last8=Rocha|first8=J.L.|last9=Steinwurz|first9=F.|last10=Veitia|first10=G.|last11=Zaltman|first11=C.|title=Diagnóstico y tratamiento de la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal: Primer Consenso Latinoamericano de la Pan American Crohn's and Colitis Organisation|journal=Revista de Gastroenterología de México|volume=82|issue=1|year=2017|pages=46–84|issn=03750906|doi=10.1016/j.rgmx.2016.07.003}}</ref><ref name="BorbélyOsterwalder2017">{{cite journal|last1=Borbély|first1=Yves M|last2=Osterwalder|first2=Alice|last3=Kröll|first3=Dino|last4=Nett|first4=Philipp C|last5=Inglin|first5=Roman A|title=Diarrhea after bariatric procedures: Diagnosis and therapy|journal=World Journal of Gastroenterology|volume=23|issue=26|year=2017|pages=4689|issn=1007-9327|doi=10.3748/wjg.v23.i26.4689}}</ref><ref name="CrawfordRamani2017">{{cite journal|last1=Crawford|first1=Sue E.|last2=Ramani|first2=Sasirekha|last3=Tate|first3=Jacqueline E.|last4=Parashar|first4=Umesh D.|last5=Svensson|first5=Lennart|last6=Hagbom|first6=Marie|last7=Franco|first7=Manuel A.|last8=Greenberg|first8=Harry B.|last9=O'Ryan|first9=Miguel|last10=Kang|first10=Gagandeep|last11=Desselberger|first11=Ulrich|last12=Estes|first12=Mary K.|title=Rotavirus infection|journal=Nature Reviews Disease Primers|volume=3|year=2017|pages=17083|issn=2056-676X|doi=10.1038/nrdp.2017.83}}</ref><ref name="pmid11068510">{{cite journal |vauthors=Kist M |title=[Chronic diarrhea: value of microbiology in diagnosis] |language=German |journal=Praxis (Bern 1994) |volume=89 |issue=39 |pages=1559–65 |year=2000 |pmid=11068510 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid4014291">{{cite journal |vauthors=Guerrant RL, Shields DS, Thorson SM, Schorling JB, Gröschel DH |title=Evaluation and diagnosis of acute infectious diarrhea |journal=Am. J. Med. |volume=78 |issue=6B |pages=91–8 |year=1985 |pmid=4014291 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid10575169">{{cite journal |vauthors=López-Vélez R, Turrientes MC, Garrón C, Montilla P, Navajas R, Fenoy S, del Aguila C |title=Microsporidiosis in travelers with diarrhea from the tropics |journal=J Travel Med |volume=6 |issue=4 |pages=223–7 |year=1999 |pmid=10575169 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="WahnschaffeIgnatius2009">{{cite journal|last1=Wahnschaffe|first1=Ulrich|last2=Ignatius|first2=Ralf|last3=Loddenkemper|first3=Christoph|last4=Liesenfeld|first4=Oliver|last5=Muehlen|first5=Marion|last6=Jelinek|first6=Thomas|last7=Burchard|first7=Gerd Dieter|last8=Weinke|first8=Thomas|last9=Harms|first9=Gundel|last10=Stein|first10=Harald|last11=Zeitz|first11=Martin|last12=Ullrich|first12=Reiner|last13=Schneider|first13=Thomas|title=Diagnostic value of endoscopy for the diagnosis of giardiasis and other intestinal diseases in patients with persistent diarrhea from tropical or subtropical areas|journal=Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology|volume=42|issue=3|year=2009|pages=391–396|issn=0036-5521|doi=10.1080/00365520600881193}}</ref><ref name="pmid27765536">{{cite journal |vauthors=Mena Bares LM, Carmona Asenjo E, García Sánchez MV, Moreno Ortega E, Maza Muret FR, Guiote Moreno MV, Santos Bueno AM, Iglesias Flores E, Benítez Cantero JM, Vallejo Casas JA |title=75SeHCAT scan in bile acid malabsorption in chronic diarrhoea |journal=Rev Esp Med Nucl Imagen Mol |volume=36 |issue=1 |pages=37–47 |year=2017 |pmid=27765536 |doi=10.1016/j.remn.2016.08.005 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid19365159">{{cite journal |vauthors=Gibson RJ, Stringer AM |title=Chemotherapy-induced diarrhoea |journal=Curr Opin Support Palliat Care |volume=3 |issue=1 |pages=31–5 |year=2009 |pmid=19365159 |doi=10.1097/SPC.0b013e32832531bb |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid23384808">{{cite journal |vauthors=Abraham BP, Sellin JH |title=Drug-induced, factitious, & idiopathic diarrhoea |journal=Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol |volume=26 |issue=5 |pages=633–48 |year=2012 |pmid=23384808 |doi=10.1016/j.bpg.2012.11.007 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid25692805">{{cite journal |vauthors=Reintam Blaser A, Deane AM, Fruhwald S |title=Diarrhoea in the critically ill |journal=Curr Opin Crit Care |volume=21 |issue=2 |pages=142–53 |year=2015 |pmid=25692805 |doi=10.1097/MCC.0000000000000188 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid17373914">{{cite journal |vauthors=McMahan ZH, DuPont HL |title=Review article: the history of acute infectious diarrhoea management--from poorly focused empiricism to fluid therapy and modern pharmacotherapy |journal=Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. |volume=25 |issue=7 |pages=759–69 |year=2007 |pmid=17373914 |doi=10.1111/j.1365-2036.2007.03261.x |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid23384801">{{cite journal |vauthors=Schiller LR |title=Definitions, pathophysiology, and evaluation of chronic diarrhoea |journal=Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol |volume=26 |issue=5 |pages=551–62 |year=2012 |pmid=23384801 |doi=10.1016/j.bpg.2012.11.011 |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid3523719">{{cite journal |vauthors=Giannella RA |title=Chronic diarrhea in travelers: diagnostic and therapeutic considerations |journal=Rev. Infect. Dis. |volume=8 Suppl 2 |issue= |pages=S223–6 |year=1986 |pmid=3523719 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid16151544">{{cite journal| author=Silverberg MS, Satsangi J, Ahmad T, Arnott ID, Bernstein CN, Brant SR et al.| title=Toward an integrated clinical, molecular and serological classification of inflammatory bowel disease: report of a Working Party of the 2005 Montreal World Congress of Gastroenterology. | journal=Can J Gastroenterol | year= 2005 | volume= 19 Suppl A | issue=  | pages= 5A-36A | pmid=16151544 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=16151544  }}</ref><ref name="pmid12135027">{{cite journal| author=Sauter GH, Moussavian AC, Meyer G, Steitz HO, Parhofer KG, Jüngst D| title=Bowel habits and bile acid malabsorption in the months after cholecystectomy. | journal=Am J Gastroenterol | year= 2002 | volume= 97 | issue= 7 | pages= 1732-5 | pmid=12135027 | doi=10.1111/j.1572-0241.2002.05779.x | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=12135027  }}</ref><ref name="pmid1702075">{{cite journal| author=Maiuri L, Raia V, Potter J, Swallow D, Ho MW, Fiocca R et al.| title=Mosaic pattern of lactase expression by villous enterocytes in human adult-type hypolactasia. | journal=Gastroenterology | year= 1991 | volume= 100 | issue= 2 | pages= 359-69 | pmid=1702075 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=1702075  }}</ref><ref name="pmid14439871">{{cite journal| author=RUBIN CE, BRANDBORG LL, PHELPS PC, TAYLOR HC| title=Studies of celiac disease. I. The apparent identical and specific nature of the duodenal and proximal jejunal lesion in celiac disease and idiopathic sprue. | journal=Gastroenterology | year= 1960 | volume= 38 | issue=  | pages= 28-49 | pmid=14439871 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=14439871  }}</ref><ref name="pmid8209928">{{cite journal| author=Konvolinka CW| title=Acute diverticulitis under age forty. | journal=Am J Surg | year= 1994 | volume= 167 | issue= 6 | pages= 562-5 | pmid=8209928 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=8209928  }} </ref><ref name="pmid16698746">{{cite journal| author=Satsangi J, Silverberg MS, Vermeire S, Colombel JF| title=The Montreal classification of inflammatory bowel disease: controversies, consensus, and implications. | journal=Gut | year= 2006 | volume= 55 | issue= 6 | pages= 749-53 | pmid=16698746 | doi=10.1136/gut.2005.082909 | pmc=1856208 | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=16698746  }} </ref><ref name="pmid12700377">{{cite journal| author=Haque R, Huston CD, Hughes M, Houpt E, Petri WA| title=Amebiasis. | journal=N Engl J Med | year= 2003 | volume= 348 | issue= 16 | pages= 1565-73 | pmid=12700377 | doi=10.1056/NEJMra022710 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=12700377  }} </ref><ref name="pmid8694025">{{cite journal| author=Hertzler SR, Savaiano DA| title=Colonic adaptation to daily lactose feeding in lactose maldigesters reduces lactose intolerance. | journal=Am J Clin Nutr | year= 1996 | volume= 64 | issue= 2 | pages= 232-6 | pmid=8694025 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=8694025  }} </ref><ref name="pmid9414969">{{cite journal| author=Briet F, Pochart P, Marteau P, Flourie B, Arrigoni E, Rambaud JC| title=Improved clinical tolerance to chronic lactose ingestion in subjects with lactose intolerance: a placebo effect? | journal=Gut | year= 1997 | volume= 41 | issue= 5 | pages= 632-5 | pmid=9414969 | doi= | pmc=1891556 | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=9414969  }} </ref><ref name="pmid15391722">{{cite journal| author=BLACK-SCHAFFER B| title=The tinctoral demonstration of a glycoprotein in Whipple's disease. | journal=Proc Soc Exp Biol Med | year= 1949 | volume= 72 | issue= 1 | pages= 225-7 | pmid=15391722 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=15391722  }} </ref>
 +
 
 +
<span style="font-size:85%">'''Abbreviations:''' '''GI:''' [[Gastrointestinal tract|Gastrointestinal]], '''CBC''': [[Complete blood count]], '''WBC:''' [[White blood cells|White blood cell]], '''RBC''': [[Red blood cell]], '''Plt:''' [[Platelet]], '''Hgb:''' [[Hemoglobin]], '''ESR''': [[Erythrocyte sedimentation rate]], '''CRP''': [[C-reactive protein|C–reactive protein]], '''IgE:''' [[Immunoglobulin E]], '''IgA:''' [[Immunoglobulin A]], '''ETEC:''' [[Escherichia coli enteritis]], '''EPEC''': [[Escherichia coli|Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli]], '''EIEC''': [[Escherichia coli enteritis|Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli]], '''EHEC''': [[Escherichia coli|Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli]], '''EAEC''': [[Escherichia coli enteritis|Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli]], '''Nl''': Normal, '''ASCA''': [[Anti saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies]], '''ANCA''': [[Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody|Anti–neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody]], '''DNA''': [[DNA|Deoxyribonucleic acid]], '''CFTR''': [[Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator]], '''SLC10A2''': [[SLC10A2|Solute carrier family 10 member 2]], '''SeHCAT''': [[SeHCAT|Selenium homocholic acid taurine or tauroselcholic acid]], '''IEL''': Intraepithelial [[Lymphocyte|lymphocytes]], '''MRCP''': [[Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography]], '''ANA''': [[Antinuclear antibodies]], '''AMA''': [[Anti-mitochondrial antibody]], '''LDH''': [[Lactate dehydrogenase]], '''CPK''': [[Creatine phosphokinase]], '''PCR''': [[Polymerase chain reaction]], '''ELISA''': [[Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)|Enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay]], '''LT''': Heat–labile [[enterotoxin]], ST: Heat–stable [[enterotoxin]], '''RT-PCR''': Reverse–transcriptase [[polymerase chain reaction]], '''CD4:''' [[CD4|Cluster of differentiation 4]], '''HIV''': [[Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)|Human immunodeficiency virus]], '''RUQ''': [[RUQ|Right-upper quadrant]], '''VIP''': [[Vasoactive intestinal peptide]], '''GI:''' [[Gastrointestinal tract|Gastrointestinal]], '''FAP''': [[Familial adenomatous polyposis]], '''HNPCC''': [[Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer]], '''MTP''': [[Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein]], '''Scl‑70''': Anti–[[Type I topoisomerase|topoisomerase I]], '''TSH''': [[Thyroid-stimulating hormone]], '''T4''': [[Thyroxine]], '''T3''': [[Triiodothyronine]], '''DTR''': [[Deep tendon reflex]], '''RNA''': [[RNA|Ribonucleic acid]]</span>
  
 
{| class="wikitable" style="border: 0px; font-size: 100%; margin: 3px;" align="center"
 
{| class="wikitable" style="border: 0px; font-size: 100%; margin: 3px;" align="center"
! rowspan="5" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Cause
+
! colspan="2" rowspan="5" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Categories
| colspan="10" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |'''Clinical manifestation'''
+
! colspan="2" rowspan="5" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Cause
 +
| colspan="9" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |'''Clinical manifestation'''
 
! colspan="9" rowspan="3" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |'''Lab findings'''
 
! colspan="9" rowspan="3" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |'''Lab findings'''
 
! rowspan="5" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Extra intestinal findings
 
! rowspan="5" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Extra intestinal findings
Line 13: Line 45:
 
! rowspan="5" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Gold standard diagnosis
 
! rowspan="5" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Gold standard diagnosis
 
|-
 
|-
! colspan="9" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Symptoms
+
! colspan="8" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Symptoms
 
! rowspan="4" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |GI signs
 
! rowspan="4" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |GI signs
 
|-
 
|-
Line 20: Line 52:
 
! rowspan="3" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Fever
 
! rowspan="3" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Fever
 
! rowspan="3" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Abdominal pain
 
! rowspan="3" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Abdominal pain
! rowspan="3" |Vomiting
 
 
! rowspan="3" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Weight loss
 
! rowspan="3" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Weight loss
 
!
 
!
Line 42: Line 73:
 
! style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Plt
 
! style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Plt
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Whipple's disease]]
+
! colspan="2" rowspan="11" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Gastrointestinal
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Crohns disease|Crohn's disease]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | ±
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | ±
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
|
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Hepatosplenomegaly]]
+
* [[Abdominal tenderness]]
* [[Ascites]]
+
* Oral [[mucosal]] lesions
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
* [[Fecal fat]]
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* [[Anti saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies]] (ASCA)
 +
* [[Vitamin B12]] deficiency
 +
* Elevated [[erythrocyte sedimentation rate|ESR]]
 +
* Elevated [[C-reactive protein|CRP]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* [[Uveitis]]
 +
* [[Arthritis]]
 +
* [[Erythema nodosum]]
 +
* [[Pyoderma gangrenosum]]
 +
* [[Amyloidosis]]
 +
* Venous and arterial [[thromboembolism]]
 +
* [[Kidney stone|Renal stones]]
 +
* [[Bronchiectasis]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* Abnormal immune response to self [[antigens]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* [[Colonoscopy]] with [[biopsy]]
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Ulcerative colitis]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | ±
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* [[Abdominal tenderness]]
 +
* [[Blood]] on [[rectal examination]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓/
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
*[[Hypoalbuminemia]]
+
* [[Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody|Anti–neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody]] ([[P-ANCA|P–ANCA]])
 +
* [[Hypoalbuminemia]]
 +
* [[Hypokalemia]]
 +
* [[Hypomagnesemia]]
 +
* Elevated [[Erythrocyte sedimentation rate|ESR]]
 +
* Elevated [[C-reactive protein|CRP]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Ocular motility disorders|Abnormal extraocular movement]]
+
* [[Skin rash]]
* [[Lymphadenopathy]]
+
* [[Iritis]]
* [[Hyperpigmentation]]
 
 
* [[Uveitis]]
 
* [[Uveitis]]
* [[Endocarditis]]
+
* Seronegative [[arthritis]]
* [[Encephalitis]]
+
* [[Clubbing]]
* [[Dementia]]
+
* [[Erythema nodosum]]
* [[Pleural effusion]]
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Tropheryma whipplei]]
+
* Abnormal immune response to self [[antigens]]
* [[HLA-B27]]
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Small intestine]] [[biopsy]] for [[Tropheryma whipplei]] testing
+
* [[Colonoscopy]] with [[biopsy]]
* [[PCR]] testing
 
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Celiac disease]]
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Celiac disease]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | ±
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | ±
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | ±
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | ±
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
|
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
* [[Abdominal distention]]
 
* [[Abdominal distention]]
* [[Mouth ulcers]]
+
* Increased [[bowel]] sounds
 +
* Oral [[Mucous membrane|mucosal]] lesions
 
* [[Hepatosplenomegaly]]
 
* [[Hepatosplenomegaly]]
 
* [[Ascites]]
 
* [[Ascites]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
* Fat droplets on [[sudan stain]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | ↓
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | ↓
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[IgA]] endomysial antibody
+
* [[IgA]] endomysial [[antibody]]
* Anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody
+
* Anti–tissue [[transglutaminase]] [[antibody]]
* Anti-gliadin antibody
+
* [[Anti-gliadin antibodies|Anti–gliadin antibody]]
 +
* [[Fat soluble vitamins]] deficiency
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Signs of the fat-soluble [[Vitamin A|vitamins A]], [[Vitamin D|D]], [[Vitamin E|E]], and [[Vitamin K|K]] deficiency
+
* [[Malabsorption]]
 
* [[Dementia]]
 
* [[Dementia]]
 
* [[Dermatitis herpetiformis]]
 
* [[Dermatitis herpetiformis]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[HLA-DQ2]]
+
* [[HLA-DQ2|HLA–DQ2]]
* [[HLA-DQ8]]
+
* [[HLA-DQ8|HLA–DQ8]]
* Innate responses to [[wheat proteins]]
+
* Innate responses to wheat [[Protein|proteins]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[IgA]] endomysial antibody
+
* [[IgA]] endomysial [[antibody]]
* [[IgA]] tissue transglutaminase antibody
+
* Anti–tissue [[transglutaminase]] [[antibody]]
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Tropical sprue]]
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Cystic fibrosis]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |±
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Abdominal distension|Abdominal distention]]
 +
*[[Hepatosplenomegaly]]
 +
*[[Rectal prolapse]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* Fat droplets on [[sudan stain]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* Positive [[DNA]] analysis for [[CFTR|cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator]] [[CFTR|(CFTR)]]
 +
* Nasal transepithelial potential difference
 +
* [[Fat soluble vitamins]] deficiency
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* [[Malabsorption]]
 +
* Recurrent [[respiratory tract infection]]
 +
* [[Bronchiectasis]]
 +
* [[Diabetes mellitus]]
 +
* [[Scoliosis]]
 +
* [[Infertility]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* Mutations in the [[cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator]] ([[CFTR]]) protein
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* Positive [[genetic testing]]
 +
* Elevated [[Sweat chloride test|sweat chloride]] ≥60 mmol/L
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Chronic pancreatitis]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
|
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Pallor]]
+
* [[Tenderness (medicine)|Abdominal tenderness]]
* Angular [[stomatitis]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
* [[Oral ulcer|Mouth ulcers]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
* [[Edema]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
* Fat droplets on [[sudan stain]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
* Positive [[fecal elastase]] measurement
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
+
* Slightly elevated [[amylase]] and [[lipase]]
* [[Vitamin B12 deficiency|Low vitamin B12]]  
+
* Abnormal pancreatic function test
* [[Folate deficiency|Low folic acid]]
+
* [[Secretin]] stimulation test
* [[Hypokalemia]] 
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
* [[Malabsorption]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
+
* [[Diabetes mellitus]]
* Unknown
+
* [[Pancreatic pseudocyst]]
* [[Bacteria]] including ''[[Escherichia coli]]'', ''[[Klebsiella pneumoniae]]'', ''[[Enterobacter cloacae]]''
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
+
* [[Toxin|Toxins]]
* Diagnosis of exclusion
+
* Recurrent [[acute pancreatitis]]
 +
* [[Genetics|Genetic]] predesposition
 +
* [[Autoimmunity|Autoimmune]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* [[Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography]] ([[Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography|MRCP]])
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Crohns disease]]
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Bile acid malabsorption]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Fat droplets on [[sudan stain]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Reduced [[cholesterol]] level
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Malabsorption]]
 +
*[[Hypotension]]
 +
*[[Tachycardia]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Genetic defects in ''[[SLC10A2]]''
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* [[SeHCAT]] test
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Microscopic colitis]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
|
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
* [[Abdominal tenderness]]
 
* [[Abdominal tenderness]]
* [[Tachycardia]]
+
* Fecal [[incontinence]]
* [[Hypotension]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Iron deficiency]]
+
* [[Hypokalemia]]
* [[Vitamin B12]] deficiency
 
* Elevated [[erythrocyte sedimentation rate|ESR]]  
 
 
* Elevated [[C-reactive protein|CRP]]
 
* Elevated [[C-reactive protein|CRP]]
 +
* Positive [[autoantibodies]] include:
 +
**RF
 +
**[[ANA]]
 +
**[[Anti-mitochondrial antibody|AMA]]
 +
**[[ANCA]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Blood seen on [[rectal exam]]
+
* [[Arthritis]]
 +
* [[Uveitis]]
 +
* [[Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura]]
 +
* Pleuro [[pericarditis]]
 +
* [[Hypothyroidism]]
 +
* [[Psoriasis]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Abnormal immune response to self [[antigens]]
+
* [[Mucosal]] [[immune responses]] to luminal factors in a genetically predisposed individual
 +
* Drug–induced
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Colonoscopy]] with [[biopsy]]
+
* [[Colonoscopy]] with [[mucosal]] [[biopsy]] with [[mononuclear]] infiltrates:
 +
** [[Collagenous colitis]] is characterized by a colonic subepithelial [[collagen]] band >10 micrometers in diameter
 +
** [[Lymphocytic]] [[colitis]] is characterized by ≥20 intraepithelial [[lymphocytes]] (IEL) per 100 surface epithelial cells
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Ulcerative colitis]]
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Infective colitis]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
|
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
 +
*Rebound [[Tenderness (medicine)|abdominal tenderness]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Abdominal tenderness]]
+
*Positive [[stool culture]]
* [[Tachycardia]]
+
*Positive fecal calprotectin
* [[Hypotension]]
+
*Positive fecal [[lactoferrin]]
* [[Aphthous ulcers]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Hypoalbuminemia
+
*Elevated [[C-reactive protein|CRP]]
* Hypokalemia
+
*Elevated [[Erythrocyte sedimentation rate|ESR]]
* Hypomagnesemia
 
* Iron deficiency
 
* Elevated ESR
 
* Elevated CRP
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Skin rash]]
+
*[[Arthritis]]
* [[Iritis]]
 
 
* [[Uveitis]]
 
* [[Uveitis]]
* Seronegative [[arthritis]]
 
* [[Clubbing]] of the fingers
 
* [[Erythema nodosum]]
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Abnormal immune response to self [[antigens]]
+
*[[Salmonella|''Salmonella'']]
 +
*[[Shigella|''Shigella'']]
 +
*[[Campylobacter|''Campylobacter'']]
 +
*''[[Escherichia coli|E. coli 0157:H7]]''
 +
*[[Clostridium difficile|''Clostridium difficile'']]
 +
*[[Entamoeba histolytica|''Entamoeba histolytica'']]
 +
*[[Adenoviridae|''Adenovirus'']]
 +
*[[Cytomegalovirus|''Cytomegalovirus'']]
 +
*[[Herpes simplex virus|''Herpes simplex virus'']]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Colonoscopy]] with [[biopsy]]
+
*[[Stool culture]]
 +
*[[Blood culture]]
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Cystic fibrosis]]
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Ischemic colitis]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |±
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
|
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*Hyperactive then absent [[Stomach rumble|bowel sounds]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*[[Tenderness (medicine)|Abdominal tenderness]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |–
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Positive [[DNA]] analysis for [[CFTR]]
+
*Elevated [[C-reactive protein|CRP]]
* Evaluated [[nasal]] transepithelial potential difference (NPD)
+
*Elevated [[Erythrocyte sedimentation rate|ESR]]
 +
*Elevated serum [[Lactic acid|lactate]]
 +
*Elevated [[lactate dehydrogenase]] ([[Lactate dehydrogenase|LDH]]
 +
*Elevated [[Creatine kinase|creatine phosphokinase]] ([[Creatine kinase|CPK]])
 +
*Elevated [[amylase]]
 +
*[[Hypoalbuminemia]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Diabetes]]
+
*[[Henoch-Schönlein purpura|IgA vasculitis]]
* Recurrent upper and lower [[respiratory tract infections]]
 
* [[Infertility]]
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Mutations in the [[cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator]] ([[CFTR]]) protein
+
*[[Thrombophilia|Hypercoagulability]] 
 +
*Nonocclusive [[Ischemic colitis|colonic ischemia]]
 +
*[[Embolism|Embolic]] and [[Thrombosis|thrombotic]] arterial occlusion
 +
*[[Mesenteric vein thrombosis]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Elevated [[Sweat chloride test|sweat chloride]] ≥60 mmol/L
+
*Abdominal [[Computed tomography|CT scan]]
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[VIPoma]]
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Lactose intolerance]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
|
+
* [[Abdominal tenderness ]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |  
 
* [[Tachycardia]]  
 
 
* [[Abdominal distention]]
 
* [[Abdominal distention]]
* Abdominal [[RUQ]] [[tenderness]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
* [[Nausea]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
* [[Vomiting]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
* Lactose tolerance test
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
* Genetic testing
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
*Elevated [[VIP]] level
 
*[[Hypokalemia]]
 
*[[Hypochlorhydria]] or [[achlorhydria]]
 
*Low osmotic gap (<50 mOsm/kg)
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
* [[Rash]]  
+
* [[Headache]]
* [[Facial flushing]]  
+
* [[Vertigo]]
* [[Dehydration]]  
+
* [[Memory impairment]]
 
* [[Lethargy]]
 
* [[Lethargy]]
* [[Muscle weakness]]
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
* Primary secretory tumor
+
* Reduction of lactase enzyme activity or inability to produce persistent [[lactase]]
 +
* Congenital [[lactase deficiency]]
 +
* Secondary lactose malabsorption
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* [[Small bowel]] [[biopsy]] 
 +
* Lactose breath hydrogen test
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Irritable bowel syndrome]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |±
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |±
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |±
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* [[Abdominal tenderness]]
 +
* [[Abdominal distention]]
 +
* Normal [[Stomach rumble|bowel sounds]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Anxiety]]
 +
*[[Palpitation]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Unknown
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
* Elevated [[VIP]] levels
+
* Diagnosis of exclusion
* Followed by imaging
 
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Zollinger-Ellison syndrome]]
+
! rowspan="29" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Infection
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
! rowspan="18" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Bacterial
 +
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Whipple's disease]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | ±
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
|
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Abdominal tenderness]]
+
* [[Hepatosplenomegaly]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
* [[Ascites]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* Positive [[fecal fat]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓/↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Hypoalbuminemia]]
 +
*[[Fat soluble vitamins]] deficiency
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* [[Malabsorption]]
 +
* [[Ocular motility disorders|Abnormal extraocular movement]]
 +
* [[Lymphadenopathy]]
 +
* [[Hyperpigmentation]]
 +
* [[Uveitis]]
 +
* [[Endocarditis]]
 +
* [[Encephalitis]]
 +
* [[Dementia]]
 +
* [[Pleural effusion]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* [[Tropheryma whipplei|''Tropheryma whipplei'']]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* [[Small intestine]] [[biopsy]] for [[Tropheryma whipplei]] testing
 +
* [[PCR]] testing
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Tropical sprue]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
* Positive [[secretin]] stimulation test
+
* Angular [[stomatitis]]
* Elevated serum [[chromogranin A]]
+
* Oral mucosal lesion
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Positive [[stool culture]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | ↓
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
* [[Heartburn]]
+
* [[Fat soluble vitamins]] deficiency
 +
* [[Vitamin B12 deficiency]]
 +
* [[Folate deficiency]]
 +
* [[Hypokalemia]] 
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Myalgia]]
 +
*[[Neuropathy]]
 +
*[[Edema]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
* [[Gastrin]] producing [[tumor]] mainly in [[duodenum]]
+
* ''[[Escherichia coli]]''
 +
* ''[[Klebsiella pneumoniae]]''
 +
* ''[[Enterobacter cloacae]]''
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
* Elevated basal or stimulated serum [[gastrin]]> 120 pg/mL
+
* Diagnosis of exclusion
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Eosinophilic gastroenteritis]] 
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome|Small bowel bacterial overgrowth]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
|
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* [[Abdominal distension|Abdominal distention]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
* [[Abdominal distention]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*Positive [[stool culture]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*Positive [[fecal fat]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
 
* Elevated [[serum]] [[IgE]] levels
 
* [[Eosinophilia]]
 
* Elevated [[ESR]]
 
 
* [[Hypoalbuminemia]]
 
* [[Hypoalbuminemia]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
+
* Abnormal [[Hydrogen Breath Test|hydrogen breath test]]
* Other [[Allergic disorders|allergic disorders]]
+
* [[Lactic acidosis]]
* Associated with an identifiable [[dietary]] [[antigen]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
+
* [[Malabsorption]]
* [[Autoimmunity|Autoimmune]] [[Allergy|allergic]] response to food [[antigens]]
+
* [[Rosacea]] 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Eosinophilic]] infiltration of the [[gastrointestinal tract]] on [[biopsy]]
+
* Excess bacteria in the [[small intestine]]
 +
* Alterations in [[Intestine|intestinal]] [[anatomy]] or GI motility
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* Diagnosis of exclusion
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Primary bile acid malabsorption]]
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Pseudomembranous enterocolitis]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |±
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
|
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |±
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* Generalized [[Tenderness (medicine)|abdominal tenderness]]
 +
* [[Abdominal distention]]
 +
* [[Rebound tenderness|Rebound abdominal tenderness]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
* [[Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)|Enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay]] ([[Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)|ELISA]])
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
* [[Polymerase chain reaction]] ([[Polymerase chain reaction|PCR]]) assay or ''[[Clostridium difficile infection|C. difficile]]'' antigen
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Low  [[Vitamin A|vitamins A]], [[Vitamin D|D]], E, and K
+
* Elevated [[Creatinine|serum creatinine]]
 +
* [[Hypoalbuminemia]]
 +
* Elevated [[lactic acid]]  
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* [[Dehydration]]
 +
* [[Acute kidney injury]]
  
 +
* [[Bacteremia]]
 +
* [[Reactive arthritis]]
 +
* [[Necrotizing fasciitis]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* [[Clostridium difficile|''Clostridium difficile'']]
 +
* Recent [[antibiotics]] use
 +
* Recent [[surgery]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* [[Stool examination|Stool exam]]
 +
* Pseudomembranes on [[colonoscopy]]
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" | [[Campylobacteriosis]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
 +
*Diffuse [[abdominal tenderness]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Positive [[stool culture]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Toxic megacolon]]
 +
*[[Sepsis]]
 +
*[[Arthritis]]
 +
*[[Endocarditis]] 
 +
*[[Guillain-Barré syndrome|Guillain–Barré syndrome]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Genetic defects]] in ''SLC10A2'' (solute carrier family 10 member 2 gene)
+
*[[Campylobacter jejuni|''Campylobacter jejuni'']]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Elevated total and specific [[bile acids]] in stool
+
*[[Stool culture]]
* Positive [[SeHCAT]]
 
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Abetalipoproteinemia]]
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Salmonellosis]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
|
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
 +
*[[Abdominal distention]]
 +
*Diffuse [[abdominal tenderness]]
 +
*[[Hepatosplenomegaly]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Abdominal distension]]
+
*Positive [[stool culture]]
* [[Visual field defect]]
+
*Positive serologic testing
* [[Dysarthria]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Low [[triglyceride]]
+
*[[Hypokalemia]]
* Low total [[cholesterol]] levels 
+
*[[Hypernatremia]]
* [[Acanthocytes]]
+
*[[Hyponatremia]]
* Low [[vitamin E]] levels
+
 
 +
* [[Hypercalciuria]]
 +
* [[Hypocitraturia]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Visual impairment
+
* [[Post-infectious arthritis|Post–infectious arthritis]]
* [[Ataxia]]
+
* [[Obtundation]]
 +
* [[Bacteremia]]
 +
 
 +
* [[Pericarditis]]
 +
* [[Pyelonephritis]]
 +
*[[Brain abscess]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Autosomal recessive]] disorder caused by mutations encoding the [[microsomal]] [[triglyceride]] transfer protein (MTP)
+
*[[Salmonella|''Salmonella'']]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Clinical findings and low [[triglyceride]] and [[cholesterol]] level
+
*[[Stool culture]]
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Microscopic colitis]]
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Shigellosis]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
 +
* [[Abdominal distention]]
 +
* Hyperactive [[Stomach rumble|bowel sounds]]
 +
* Diffuse [[abdominal tenderness]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
|
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Abdominal tenderness]]
+
*Positive [[stool culture]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑/↓
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Elevated [[autoantibodies]] include:
+
*Elevated [[C-reactive protein|CRP]]
**[[RF]]
+
*Elevated [[Erythrocyte sedimentation rate|ESR]]
**[[ANA]]
+
*[[Hyponatremia]]
**[[Anti-mitochondrial antibody|AMA]]
+
* [[Hypoglycemia]]
**[[ANCA]]
+
* [[Azotemia]] 
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* [[Headache]]
 +
* [[Lethargy]]
 +
* [[Seizures]]
 +
* [[Delirium]]
 +
* [[Post-infectious arthritis|Post–infectious arthritis]]
 +
* [[Myocarditis]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Shigella|''Shigella'']]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Stool culture]]
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="5" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Escherichia coli enteritis]]
 +
| style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[ETEC|'''ETEC''']]
 +
([[Traveler's diarrhea]])
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
 +
*Diffuse [[abdominal tenderness]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Positive [[stool culture]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Escherichia coli|''Enterotoxigenic escherichia coli'']]
 +
*[[Enterotoxin|Enterotoxins]]:
 +
**Heat–labile [[enterotoxin]] (LT)
 +
**Heat–stable [[enterotoxin]] (ST)
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Stool culture]]
 +
|-
 +
| style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[EPEC|'''EPEC''']]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
 +
*Diffuse [[abdominal tenderness]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Positive [[stool culture]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*''[[Enteropathogenic E. coli]]''
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Hybridization probe|DNA probe]] or [[polymerase chain reaction]] ([[Polymerase chain reaction|PCR]]) of the ''EPEC'' adherence factor
 +
*[[Stool culture]]
 +
|-
 +
| style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[EIEC|'''EIEC''']]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
 +
*Diffuse [[abdominal tenderness]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Fecal urgency
+
*Positive [[stool culture]]
* Fecal [[incontinence]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
* [[Arthralgia]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
* [[Arthritis]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
* [[Uveitis]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |–
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Mucosal]] [[immune responses]] to luminal factors in a genetically predisposed individual
+
*[[Escherichia coli enteritis|''Enteroinvasive E. coli'']]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Colonoscopy]] with [[mucosal]] [[biopsy]] with [[mononuclear]] infiltrates:
+
*[[Hybridization probe|DNA probe]]
** [[Collagenous colitis]] is characterized by a colonic subepithelial [[collagen]] band >10 micrometers in diameter
+
*[[Stool culture]]
** [[Lymphocytic]] [[colitis]] is characterized by ≥20 intraepithelial [[lymphocytes]] (IEL) per 100 surface epithelial cells
 
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Hyperthyroidism]]
+
| style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[EHEC|'''EHEC''']]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |±
+
*Diffuse [[abdominal tenderness]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
|
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Positive [[stool culture]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* [[Azotemia]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Hemolytic-uremic syndrome|Hemolytic uremic syndrome]] ([[Hemolytic-uremic syndrome|HUS]])
 +
*[[Renal insufficiency|Renal failure]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Lump in the neck
+
*[[Enterohemorrhagic escherichica coli|''Enterohemorrhagic E. coli'']] 
* [[Proptosis]]
+
*[[Shiga toxin|Shiga toxins]]
* [[Tremor]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Increased [[Deep tendon reflex|DTR]]
+
*[[Stool culture]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
|-
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[EAEC|'''EAEC''']]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
 +
*Diffuse [[abdominal tenderness]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Elevated [[T4]]
+
*Positive [[stool culture]]
* Elevated [[T3]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
* Decreased [[TSH]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |–
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Lid lag
+
*Chronic infection in [[Immunodeficiency|immunocompromised]] patients
* [[Sweating]]
 
* [[Hyperpigmentation]]
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Graves' disease]]
+
*[[Escherichia coli enteritis|''Enteroaggregative E. coli'']]
* [[Hashimoto's thyroiditis]]
 
* [[Toxic adenoma]]  
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[TSH]]
+
*[[Stool culture]]
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Lactose intolerance]]
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Yersinia enterocolitica]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
|
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
+
* [[Abdominal distention]]
* [[Abdominal tenderness ]]
+
* Hyperactive [[Stomach rumble|bowel sounds]]
* [[Hypotension]]
+
* Diffuse [[abdominal tenderness]]
* [[Tachycardia]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
* [[Nausea and vomiting]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Positive [[stool culture]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
*[[Bacteremia]]
* [[Hydrogen breath test]]
+
*[[Reactive arthritis]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
*[[Glomerulonephritis]]
* [[Bloating]]
+
*[[Endocarditis]]
* [[Flatulence]]
+
*[[Erythema nodosum]]
* Symptoms begin mainly after ingestion of [[lactose]]
+
*[[Abscess]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Reduction of lactase enzyme activity or inability to produce persistent [[lactase]]
+
*[[Yersinia enterocolitica|''Yersinia enterocolitica'']]
* Congenital [[lactase deficiency]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
+
*[[Stool culture]]
* [[Lactase]] activity assay
 
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Irritable bowel syndrome]]
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Vibrio cholerae|Vibrio cholera]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |±
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |±
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |±
+
*Positive [[stool culture]]
|
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
* [[Abdominal tenderness]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Flatulence]]
+
*[[Azotemia]]
* Hard stool in the rectal vault
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*Severe [[dehydration]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*Decreased [[Turgor|skin turgor]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*[[Oliguria]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
*[[Renal insufficiency|Renal failure]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*[[Cramp|Muscle cramps]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
*[[Seizure]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
*[[Somnolence]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*[[Cholera toxin]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*[[Stool culture]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
 
* Diagnosis of exclusion
 
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Chronic pancreatitis]]
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Aeromonas]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
|
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
* [[Tenderness (medicine)|Abdominal tenderness]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
* [[Abdominal distention]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
* Hyperactive [[Stomach rumble|bowel sounds]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
* Diffuse [[abdominal tenderness]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Positive [[stool culture]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*Wound [[infection]]
* Slightly elevated amylase and lipase
+
*[[Bacteremia]]
* Abnormal pancreatic function test
+
*[[Hemolytic-uremic syndrome|Hemolytic uremic syndrome]] 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*[[Meningitis]]
* [[Malabsorption]]
+
*[[Ocular]] infection
* [[Diabetes mellitus]]
+
*[[Pneumonia]] 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*[[Urinary tract infection]]
* Repeated acute pancreatitis
+
*[[Osteomyelitis]]
* Alcohol abuse
+
*[[Peritonitis]]
* Genetic
+
*[[Acute cholecystitis]]
* Autoimmune
+
*[[Opportunistic infection|Opportunistic infections]] in [[Immunodeficiency|immunocompromised]] patients
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Secretin]] stimulation test
+
*''[[Aeromonas]]'' virulence factors including [[Endotoxin|endotoxins]], [[Hemolysin|hemolysins]], [[Enterotoxin|enterotoxins]], and adherence factors
* [[Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography|ERCP]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Blood culture]]
 +
*Wound [[Culture collection|culture]]
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Cirrhosis]]
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Plesiomonas shigelloides|Plesiomonas]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
 +
* Hyperactive [[Stomach rumble|bowel sounds]]
 +
* Diffuse [[abdominal tenderness]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
|
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
* Jaundice
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
* Hepatosplenomegaly
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Abdominal distention
+
*Positive [[stool culture]]
* Shifting dullness
 
* Asterixis
 
* Skin telangiectasias 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Opportunistic infection|Opportunistic infections]] in [[Immunodeficiency|immunocompromised]] patients or [[Hepato-biliary diseases|hepatobiliary disease]]
 +
*[[Bacteremia]]
 +
*[[Cellulitis]] and [[Skin and soft-tissue infections|skin abscesses]]
 +
*[[Peritonitis]]
 +
*[[Meningoencephalitis]]
 +
*[[Ocular]] [[infection]]
 +
*[[Pneumonia]]
 +
*[[Prosthetic devices|Prosthetic]] joint [[infection]] 
 +
*Septic [[Pregnancy termination complications|abortion]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Plesiomonas shigelloides|''Plesiomonas shigelloides'']]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Blood culture]]
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Mycobacterium avium complex]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Abdominal distension|Abdominal distention]]
 +
*[[Hepatosplenomegaly]] 
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |–
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Abnormal liver function tests
+
*Elevated [[Liver function tests|liver enzymes]]
* Prolonged PT/PTT
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*[[Opportunistic infection]] in [[Immunodeficiency|immunocompromised]] patients
* Coagulopathy
+
*[[Pulmonary]] [[infection]]
* Portal hypertension
+
*[[Lymphadenopathy|Adenopathy]] 
* Hepatic encephalopathy
+
*[[Sleep hyperhidrosis|Night sweats]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Alcoholic liver disease]]
+
*[[Mycobacterium avium complex|''Mycobacterium avium complex'']]
* Viral hepatitis
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease|Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis]]
+
*[[Blood culture]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
* Liver biopsy
 
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Short bowel syndrome]]
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Foodborne illness|Food poisoning]]
 +
* [[Staphylococcus aureus]]
 +
* [[Bacillus cereus]]
 +
* [[Clostridium perfringens]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |±
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |±
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
|
+
*[[Abdominal distension|Abdominal distention]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |±
* [[Abdominal distension|Abdominal distention]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
* [[Tenderness (medicine)|Abdominal tenderness]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
* Peripheral edema
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Muscle atrophy]]
+
*Positive [[stool culture]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*History of travel or ingestion of infected food
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Enterotoxin|Enterotoxins]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Stool culture]]
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="6" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Virus
 +
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Norovirus]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
 +
*[[Abdominal distension|Abdominal distention]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Positive stool reverse–transcriptase [[polymerase chain reaction]] (RT–PCR)
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
* [[Hypoalbuminemia]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |–
* High level of [[Acute phase protein|acute phase reactant]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Abnormal liver function tests
+
*[[Myalgia]]
* Low  vitamin A, B12, C,[[Vitamin D|D]], E, and K level
+
*[[Headache]] 
* High [[fecal fat]]
+
*[[Seizure]] 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*[[Encephalopathy]] 
* Prior intestinal surgery
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 
+
*[[Norovirus|''Norovirus'']]
* [[Crohn's disease]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* [[Cancer|Malignancy]]
+
*Clinical diagnosis
* [[Radiation enteropathy|Radiation enteritis]]
+
|-
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Rotavirus]]
* Surgical intestinal resection
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
 +
* Hyperactive [[Stomach rumble|bowel sounds]]
 +
* Diffuse [[abdominal tenderness]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Elevated [[blood urea nitrogen]]
 +
*[[Hyperchloremic acidosis]]
 +
*[[Hypocalcemia]] 
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Necrotizing enterocolitis]]
 +
*[[Intussusception]] 
 +
*[[Biliary atresia]]
 +
*[[Central nervous system]] involvement
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Rotavirus|''Rotavirus'']]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Stool immune–based assays
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Echovirus]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
 +
*[[Abdominal distension|Abdominal distention]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Hepatic failure|Liver failure]]
 +
*[[Myocarditis]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Echovirus|''Echovirus'']]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Clinical diagnosis
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Adenoviridae|Adenovirus]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
 +
*[[Abdominal distension|Abdominal distention]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Viral antigen assay
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Respiratory disease]]
 +
*[[Hyperkeratosis|Follicular]] [[conjunctivitis]]
 +
*Epidemic [[keratoconjunctivitis]]
 +
*[[Hepatitis]] 
 +
*[[Urethritis]] 
 +
*[[Myocarditis]] 
 +
*[[Meningitis]] 
 +
*[[Bacteremia]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Adenoviridae|''Adenovirus'']]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Clinical diagnosis
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome|Small bowel bacterial overgrowth]]
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[CMV colitis]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |±
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
|
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Diffuse [[Tenderness (medicine)|abdominal tenderness]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
* [[Muscle atrophy]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
* [[Abdominal distension|Abdominal distention]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*Viral antigen assay
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
* [[Hypoalbuminemia]]
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Abnormal [[Hydrogen Breath Test|hydrogen breath test]]
+
*Decreased [[CD4]] level
* [[Lactic acidosis]]
+
*Abnormal [[Liver function tests|liver function test]]
* Abnormal [[fecal fat]] test
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*[[Encephalitis]] 
* [[Malabsorption]]
+
*[[Guillain-Barré syndrome|Guillain–Barré syndrome]]
* [[Avitaminosis|Vitamins deficiencies]]
+
*[[Pneumonia]] 
* [[Rosacea]] 
+
*[[Retinitis]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*[[Pericarditis]] and [[myocarditis]]
* Excess bacteria in the small intestine
+
*[[Atherosclerosis]] 
* Alterations in intestinal anatomy or GI motility, 
+
*[[Venous thromboembolism|Venous thrombosis]]
* Lack of gastric acid secretion
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*[[Cytomegalovirus|''Cytomegalovirus'']]
* Diagnosis of exclusion
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Quantitative polymerase chain reaction|Quantitative PCR]] tests 
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" | '''[[X-linked agammaglobulinemia]]'''
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)|HIV]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
|
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
 +
*[[Abdominal distension|Abdominal distention]]
 +
*Diffuse [[Tenderness (medicine)|abdominal tenderness]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
* Signs of dehydration
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
* Signs of infections
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Hypogammaglobulinemia
+
*Decreased [[CD4]] level
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*[[Electrolyte disturbance|Electrolyte imbalance]]
* Recurrent respiratory tract infections
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Gastroenteritis
+
*[[Lymphadenopathy]]
* Bacterial infections
+
*Disseminated [[infection]]
* Malabsorption
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*[[Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)|''HIV'']]
* Inherited Gene defect 
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*HIV virologic (viral load) test
* Low circulating immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE) on blood tests
+
*Immunoassay 
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |Intestinal [[lymphangiectasia]]
+
! rowspan="5" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Parasite
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Entamoeba histolytica]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
 +
*[[Abdominal distension|Abdominal distention]]
 +
*Diffuse [[Tenderness (medicine)|abdominal tenderness]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
|
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
* Peripheral edema
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Macular edema 
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*[[Liver abscess]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*Pleuropulmonary infection
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
*[[Cardiac]] [[infection]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
*[[Brain abscess]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*[[Skin and soft-tissue infections|Cutaneous infection]]
* Hypoproteinemia
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Hypogammaglobulinemia
+
*[[Entamoeba histolytica|''Entamoeba histolytica'']]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Protein-losing enteropathy
+
*Antigen testing
* Malabsorption
+
*Serology 
* Anergy
 
* Homograft rejection
 
* Pachydermoperiostosis 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
* Dilatation of intestinal lymphatics
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Intestinal biopsy
 
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Amyloidosis]]
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Giardia lamblia|Giardia]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
 +
*[[Abdominal distension|Abdominal distention]]
 +
*Diffuse [[Tenderness (medicine)|abdominal tenderness]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
|
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*[[Malabsorption]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*[[Urticaria]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*[[Depression]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*''[[Giardia lamblia]]''
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
*Antigen detection assays
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Mastocytosis]]
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Cryptosporidium]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
|
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
*[[Abdominal distension|Abdominal distention]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*Diffuse [[Tenderness (medicine)|abdominal tenderness]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
*Positive stool microscopy
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
*Elevated [[alkaline phosphatase]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Chronic, life–threatening illness in [[Immunodeficiency|immunocompromised]] patients
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Cryptosporidium|''Cryptosporidium'']]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Polymerase chain reaction
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |Drug induced [[enteritis]]
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Microsporidia]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
|
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
*[[Abdominal distension|Abdominal distention]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*Diffuse [[Tenderness (medicine)|abdominal tenderness]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
*Positive stool microscopy
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
*Decreased [[CD4]] count
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Malabsorption]]
 +
*[[Keratitis]] 
 +
*[[Seizure]]
 +
*[[Myositis]] 
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Microsporidia]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Antigen detection assays
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Giardiasis]]
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Isospora]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Abdominal distension|Abdominal distention]]
 +
*Diffuse [[Tenderness (medicine)|abdominal tenderness]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
|
+
*Positive stool microscopy
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*Positive [[fecal fat]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*Elevated [[Eosinophil granulocyte|eosinophils]] 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*[[Hypokalemia]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*Increased [[creatinine]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*Chronic illness in [[Immunodeficiency|immunocompromised]] patients
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*[[Isospora|''Isospora'']]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*Detecting oocysts in the feces
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Strongyloidiasis]]
+
! colspan="2" rowspan="6" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Tumors
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Carcinoid syndrome|Carcinoid tumor]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
|
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
* [[Abdominal distention]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
*Elevated urinary [[5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid|5–hydroxyindoleacetic acid]] ([[5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid|5–HIAA]]) level
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
*High [[chromogranin A]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Flushing|Facial flushing]]
 +
*[[Jaundice]]
 +
*[[Edema]]
 +
*[[Valvular heart disease]]
 +
*[[Congestive heart failure|Right–sided heart failure]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Well–differentiated [[Neuroendocrine tumors|neuroendocrine tumor]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Blood [[chromogranin A]]  level
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Tuberculosis]]
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[VIPoma]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
|
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |  
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
* [[Abdominal distention]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
* Abdominal [[RUQ]] [[tenderness]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
* [[Nausea]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
* [[Vomiting]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Elevated [[VIP]] level
 +
*[[Hypokalemia]]
 +
*[[Hypochlorhydria]] or [[achlorhydria]]
 +
*Low osmotic gap (<50 mOsm/kg)
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
 +
* [[Rash]]
 +
* [[Facial flushing]]
 +
* [[Dehydration]]
 +
* [[Lethargy]]
 +
* [[Muscle weakness]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
 +
* Primary secretory tumor
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
 +
* Blood [[VIP]] levels
 +
* Followed by imaging
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |Chronic laxative abuse
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Zollinger-Ellison syndrome|Zollinger–Ellison syndrome]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
|
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
** [[Tenderness|Epigastric tenderness]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
* Positive [[secretin]] stimulation test
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
* Elevated serum [[chromogranin A]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
 +
** [[Jaundice]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |  
 +
* [[Gastrin]] producing [[tumor]] mainly in [[duodenum]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* [[Secretin]] stimulation test
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" | Pseudomembranous colitis
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Neuroendocrine tumors|Somatostatinoma]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+/-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+/-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
** [[Tenderness|Epigastric tenderness]]
* Abdominal tenderness
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
* Presence of pseudomembranes of endoscopy
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |–
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
* Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for ''C difficile'' toxin A and B
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
* Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay or ''C difficile'' antigen (glutamate dehydrogenase [GDH]) EIA
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*Elevated fasting plasma [[somatostatin]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
** [[Diabetes mellitus]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
** [[Gallstone disease|Cholelithiasis]]
* Leukocytosis
+
** [[Jaundice]]
* Elevated serum creatinine
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Hypoalbuminemia
+
*[[Neuroendocrine tumors]] of D–cell origin
* Anasarca
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
* Elevated serum lactate
+
*Plasma [[somatostatin]] level
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*Followed by imaging
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
|-
* Recent antibiotics use
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Lymphoma]]
* Recent surgery
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
* Colon cancer
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
* Diverticulitis
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
* Appendicitis
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
* Stool exam
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
* CT
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
 +
*Diffuse [[Tenderness (medicine)|abdominal tenderness]]
 +
*[[Hepatosplenomegaly]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Paraproteinemia]] 
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* [[Malabsorption]]
 +
* [[Lactose intolerance]]
 +
* [[Ascites]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Primary [[tumor]] of GI tract
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Colonoscopy]] with [[biopsy]]
 
|-
 
|-
!
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Colorectal cancer]]
| colspan="10" |'''Clinical manifestation'''
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
! colspan="9" rowspan="3" |'''Lab findings'''
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! rowspan="5" |Extra intestinal findings
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! rowspan="5" |Cause/Pathogenesis
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! rowspan="5" |Gold standard diagnosis
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Diffuse [[Tenderness (medicine)|abdominal tenderness]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* Positive [[carcinoembryonic antigen]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Metastasis]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[FAP|FAP gene]]
 +
*[[Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer|HNPCC gene]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
** [[Colonoscopy]] and [[biopsy]]
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |
+
! colspan="2" rowspan="5" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Medication/Toxicity
! colspan="9" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Symptoms
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |Medications
! rowspan="4" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |GI signs
+
* [[ACE inhibitor|ACE inhibitors]]
 +
* [[Digoxin]]
 +
* [[Cephalosporin|Cephalosporins]]
 +
* [[Statins]]
 +
* [[Thiazide|Thiazide diuretics]]
 +
* [[Triptans]]
 +
* [[Lactulose]]
 +
* [[HIV AIDS medical therapy|Anti retroviral agents]]
 +
* [[Chemotherapy|Chemotherapeutic agents]]
 +
* [[Antifungal drug|Antifungals]]
 +
* [[Magnesium]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |±
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |±
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
 +
*[[Abdominal distention]]
 +
*[[Dehydration]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑/↓
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Elevated plasma level of drug
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Inflammation]]
 +
*[[Pseudomembranous enterocolitis|Pseudomembranous colitis]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Clinical evaluation after discontinuation of the drugs
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |Factitious diarrhea
! colspan="2" rowspan="2" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Duration
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! colspan="3" rowspan="2" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Diarrhea
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! rowspan="3" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Fever
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! rowspan="3" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Abdominal pain
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
! rowspan="3" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Weight loss
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
 +
*[[Abdominal distention]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑/↓
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Hypokalemia]] 
 +
*[[Metabolic alkalosis]]
 +
*[[Hypermagnesemia]] 
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Malabsorption]]
 +
*[[Lethargy]]
 +
*[[Generalized weakness]]
 +
*[[Acute kidney injury|Acute renal failure]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Medication|Medications]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Clinical evaluation after discontinuation of the drugs
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Heavy metal ingestion]]
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
! colspan="5" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Stool exam
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| colspan="3" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |'''CBC'''
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! rowspan="2" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |Other lab findings
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
 +
*[[Abdominal distention]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |–
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Elevated plasma heavy metal level
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Headache]]
 +
*[[Paresthesia|Numbness]]
 +
*[[Alopecia]]
 +
*[[Vertigo]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Heavy metal ingestion]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Plasma level of heavy metal
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Organophosphate poisoning]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Acute
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Chronic
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Watery
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Bloody
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Fatty
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |WBC
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |RBC
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Ova/Parasite
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Osmotic gap
+
*[[Saliva|Salivation]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |Other
+
*[[Nausea and vomiting|Vomiting]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |WBC
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Hgb
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Plt
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Reduced RBC acetylcholinesterase
 +
*Plasma [[cholinesterase]] activity
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Dysautonomia|Autonomic dysfunction]]
 +
*Motor deficit
 +
*Sensory deficit
 +
*[[Bronchospasm]]
 +
*[[Urination]]
 +
*[[Miosis]]
 +
*[[Bradycardia]]
 +
*[[Lacrimation]]
 +
*[[Sweating]]
 +
*[[Cardiac arrhythmia|Cardiac arrhythmias]]
 +
*[[Acute kidney injury|Acute renal injury]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Neurotoxin|Neurotoxins]] bind to [[ACHE|acetylcholinesterase]] (AChE)
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Clinical diagnosis
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |CMV collitis
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Opium withdrawal]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+/-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
*Hyperactive [[Stomach rumble|bowel sounds]]
*
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+/-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
*
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
*[[Azotemia]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
*[[Hypokalemia]]
*CD 4 level decreased as it is maily associated with HIV
+
*[[Metabolic alkalosis]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
*
+
*[[Dysphoria]] 
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
*[[Agitation (emotion)|Restlessness]]
*
+
*[[Perspiration|Sweating]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
*[[Rhinorrhea]]
*
+
*[[Tears|Lacrimation]]
 +
*[[Myalgia]]
 +
*[[Arthralgia]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Opium|Opium withdrawal]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Clinical diagnosis following [[opium withdrawal]]
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |Macrobacterium Aviom Complex
+
! colspan="2" rowspan="3" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Iatrogenic
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Short bowel syndrome]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+/-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
*
+
* [[Abdominal distension|Abdominal distention]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+/-
+
* [[Tenderness (medicine)|Abdominal tenderness]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
*
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
*Positive [[fecal fat]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
*Immune system analysis may show defects
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
* [[Hypoalbuminemia]]
*
+
* High level of [[Acute phase protein|acute phase reactant]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
* Abnormal [[liver function tests]]
*
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
* Prior [[Intestine|intestinal]] surgery
*
+
* [[Malabsorption]]
 +
* [[Crohn's disease]]
 +
* [[Cancer|Malignancy]]
 +
* Peripheral [[edema]]
 +
* [[Muscle atrophy]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* Surgical [[bowel resection]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Clinical diagnosis following [[bowel resection]]
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |Colon cancer
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Radiation enteropathy|Radiation enteritis]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
* [[Tenderness (medicine)|Abdominal tenderness]]
*
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
*Positive [[fecal fat]]
*
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑/
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
*Vitamin B12 deficiency
*May be associated with FAP gene or HNPCC gene
+
*[[Hypoalbuminemia]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
*
+
*Prior history of [[Cancer|malignancy]] and [[radiation therapy]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
*[[Malabsorption]]
*
+
*[[Telangiectasia|Telangiectasias]] 
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
*
+
*[[Radiation therapy|Radiation]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Segmental bowel [[inflammation]] on [[endoscopy]] or [[colonoscopy]]
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |Intestinal metastasis
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Gastric dumping syndrome|Dumping syndrome]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
*Hyperactive [[bowel sound]]
*
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
*
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑/↓
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Nl
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑/↓
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑/↓
+
* [[Hypoglycemia]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
* [[Hydrogen Breath Test|Hydrogen breath test]]
*
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
*[[Malnutrition]]
*
+
*[[Fat soluble vitamins|Fat soluble vitamin]] deficiency
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
*
+
*[[Post operative complications|Postgastrectomy]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
*
+
*Clinical diagnosis following [[gastrectomy]]
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |Infectious Diarrhea
+
! colspan="2" rowspan="4" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" align="center" |Others
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Abetalipoproteinemia]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+/-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
*
+
* [[Abdominal distension]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
*Stool culture may be positive for responsible organism
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
* Low [[triglyceride]]
*
+
* Low total [[cholesterol]] levels 
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
* [[Acanthocytes]]
*
+
* Low [[vitamin E]] levels
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
*Trichuris trichiura infection
+
* [[Ataxia]]
*EHEC
+
* [[Visual field defect]]
*Entamoeba
+
* [[Dysarthria]]
*Intestinal amebiasi
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
* [[Autosomal recessive]] disorder caused by mutations encoding the [[microsomal triglyceride transfer protein]] (MTP)
*
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* Clinical findings and low [[triglyceride]] and [[cholesterol]] level
 
|-
 
|-
! style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |Infectious Diarrhea
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Hyperthyroidism]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |±
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
*
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
*Positive [[fecal fat]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
*Stool culture may be positive for responsible organism
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |-
+
* Elevated [[T4]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
* Elevated [[T3]]
*
+
* Decreased [[TSH]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
* High serum [[alkaline phosphatase]]
*
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
* Lump in the neck
*Campylobacter
+
* Lid lag
*Escherischia coli enterohemmorrhagic
+
* [[Malabsorption]]
*Clostridium Perfringens
+
* [[Sweating]]
*Salmonellosis
+
* [[Hyperpigmentation]]
! style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
+
* [[Proptosis]]
*
+
* [[Tremor]]
 +
* Increased [[Deep tendon reflex|DTR]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* [[Graves' disease]]
 +
* [[Hashimoto's thyroiditis]]
 +
* [[Toxic adenoma]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
* [[TSH]]
 
|-
 
|-
!Isosporiasis
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Diabetic neuropathy]]
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
!+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
!+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
!+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
!-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
!
+
*[[Fecal incontinence]]
!+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
!+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
!-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
!-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
!↑
+
*Positive [[fecal fat]]
!-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
!
+
*[[Hyperglycemia]]
!
+
*[[Azotemia]]
 +
*[[Hypokalemia]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Malabsorption]] 
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Unclear
 +
*Disordered [[motility]]
 +
*Increased [[Intestine|intestinal]] secretion
 +
*[[Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Clinical diagnosis in a patient with long lasting [[diabetes mellitus]]
 
|-
 
|-
!Parasitic Diarrhea
+
! colspan="2" style="background:#DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Scleroderma|Systemic sclerosis]]
!+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
!+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
!+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |±
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
!-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
!+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
!+/-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="Left" |
!
+
*[[Abdominal pain|Epigastric tenderness]]
!+
+
*[[Fecal incontinence]]
!+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
!+
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
!-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | –
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
!↑
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
!-
+
*Positive [[fecal fat]]
!-
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↓
!
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | Nl
!Amebiasis
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
Intestinal Schistosomiasis
+
* Anti–[[Type I topoisomerase|topoisomerase I]] (Scl‑70) antibodies
 
+
* [[Antinuclear antibodies]] ([[Antinuclear antibodies|ANA]])
Balantidiasis
+
* [[Anti-centromere antibodies|Anti–centromere antibodies]]
 
+
* Anti–[[RNA polymerase III]] antibody
Trichuriasis
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
!
+
*[[Malabsorption]]
 +
*[[Skin changes]]
 +
*[[Raynaud's phenomenon|Raynaud phenomenon]]
 +
*[[Pulmonary hypertension]]
 +
*[[Arthritis]]
 +
*[[Telangiectasia]]
 +
*[[Chronic renal failure]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*[[Autoimmunity|Autoimmune reaction]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="left" |
 +
*Clinical diagnosis
 +
*Followed by serologic tests
 
|- }
 
|- }
 
|}
 
|}
 +
<references />

Latest revision as of 16:37, 21 December 2017

Differential Diagnosis of Diarrhea

To review the differential diagnosis of diarrhea, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of acute diarrhea, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of chronic diarrhea, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of traveler's diarrhea, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of acute watery diarrhea, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of acute bloody diarrhea, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of acute fatty diarrhea, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of chronic watery diarrhea, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of chronic bloody diarrhea, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of chronic fatty diarrhea, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of acute diarrhea and fever, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of chronic diarrhea and fever, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of acute diarrhea and abdominal pain, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of acute diarrhea and weight loss, click here.

To review the differential diagnosis of chronic diarrhea and weight loss, click here.

Diarrhea

The following table outlines the major differential diagnoses of diarrhea.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]

Abbreviations: GI: Gastrointestinal, CBC: Complete blood count, WBC: White blood cell, RBC: Red blood cell, Plt: Platelet, Hgb: Hemoglobin, ESR: Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP: C–reactive protein, IgE: Immunoglobulin E, IgA: Immunoglobulin A, ETEC: Escherichia coli enteritis, EPEC: Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, EIEC: Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, EHEC: Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, EAEC: Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli, Nl: Normal, ASCA: Anti saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies, ANCA: Anti–neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, CFTR: Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, SLC10A2: Solute carrier family 10 member 2, SeHCAT: Selenium homocholic acid taurine or tauroselcholic acid, IEL: Intraepithelial lymphocytes, MRCP: Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, ANA: Antinuclear antibodies, AMA: Anti-mitochondrial antibody, LDH: Lactate dehydrogenase, CPK: Creatine phosphokinasePCR: Polymerase chain reaction, ELISA: Enzyme–linked immunosorbent assay, LT: Heat–labile enterotoxin, ST: Heat–stable enterotoxin, RT-PCR: Reverse–transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, CD4: Cluster of differentiation 4, HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus, RUQ: Right-upper quadrant, VIP: Vasoactive intestinal peptide, GI: Gastrointestinal, FAP: Familial adenomatous polyposis, HNPCC: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, MTP: Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, Scl‑70: Anti–topoisomerase I, TSH: Thyroid-stimulating hormone, T4: Thyroxine, T3: Triiodothyronine, DTR: Deep tendon reflex, RNA: Ribonucleic acid

Categories Cause Clinical manifestation Lab findings Extra intestinal findings Cause/Pathogenesis Gold standard diagnosis
Symptoms GI signs
Duration Diarrhea Fever Abdominal pain Weight loss
Stool exam CBC Other lab findings
Acute Chronic Watery Bloody Fatty WBC RBC Ova/Parasite Osmotic gap Other WBC Hgb Plt
Gastrointestinal Crohn's disease + + + + ± + + + + Nl
  • Abnormal immune response to self antigens
Ulcerative colitis + + + + ± + + + + Nl
  • Abnormal immune response to self antigens
Celiac disease + ± ± + + Nl Nl Nl
Cystic fibrosis + + ± + + Nl Nl Nl
Chronic pancreatitis + + + + + Nl Nl Nl Nl
Bile acid malabsorption + + + + Nl Nl Nl Nl
Microscopic colitis + + + + Nl Nl Nl
Infective colitis + + + + + + + + + Nl
Ischemic colitis + + + + + + + + + Nl
Lactose intolerance + + + + Nl Nl Nl
  • Lactose tolerance test
  • Genetic testing
  • Reduction of lactase enzyme activity or inability to produce persistent lactase
  • Congenital lactase deficiency
  • Secondary lactose malabsorption
Irritable bowel syndrome + ± ± ± Nl Nl Nl Nl Nl
  • Unknown
  • Diagnosis of exclusion
Infection Bacterial Whipple's disease + + + ± + + Nl ↓/↑
Tropical sprue + + + + + + + + Nl Nl Nl
  • Diagnosis of exclusion
Small bowel bacterial overgrowth + + + + + + Nl Nl Nl
  • Diagnosis of exclusion
Pseudomembranous enterocolitis + + ± + + ± + + Nl
 Campylobacteriosis + + + + + + + Nl Nl Nl Nl
Salmonellosis + + + + + + + + Nl Nl
Shigellosis + + + + + + + Nl ↑/↓
Escherichia coli enteritis ETEC

(Traveler's diarrhea)

+ + + + Nl Nl Nl
EPEC + + + + + + + + + Nl Nl Nl
EIEC + + + + + + + Nl Nl Nl
EHEC + + + + + + Nl
EAEC + + + + + + + Nl
Yersinia enterocolitica + + + + + + + Nl Nl Nl
Vibrio cholera + + + + Nl Nl Nl
Aeromonas + + + + + + + + Nl Nl Nl
Plesiomonas + + + + + + + Nl Nl Nl
Mycobacterium avium complex + + + + + + + + Nl Nl
Food poisoning + + ± + + ± + ± Nl Nl Nl
  • History of travel or ingestion of infected food
Virus Norovirus + + + + Nl Nl Nl
  • Clinical diagnosis
Rotavirus + + + + Nl Nl Nl Nl
  • Stool immune–based assays
Echovirus + + + + Nl Nl Nl Nl
  • Clinical diagnosis
Adenovirus + + + + Nl
  • Viral antigen assay
Nl Nl Nl
  • Clinical diagnosis
CMV colitis + + + ± + + + Nl
  • Viral antigen assay
Nl Nl
HIV + + + + + + Nl Nl
  • HIV virologic (viral load) test
  • Immunoassay 
Parasite Entamoeba histolytica + + + + + + + + + Nl Nl Nl
  • Antigen testing
  • Serology 
Giardia + + + + + + Nl Nl Nl Nl
  • Antigen detection assays
Cryptosporidium + + + + + Nl
  • Positive stool microscopy
Nl Nl Nl
  • Polymerase chain reaction
Microsporidia + + + + + + Nl
  • Positive stool microscopy
Nl Nl Nl
  • Decreased CD4 count
  • Antigen detection assays
Isospora + + + + + + + + + + Nl Nl Nl
  • Detecting oocysts in the feces
Tumors Carcinoid tumor + + + + + + Nl Nl Nl
VIPoma + + + + + + Nl Nl Nl
  • Primary secretory tumor
  • Blood VIP levels
  • Followed by imaging
Zollinger–Ellison syndrome + + + + + + Nl Nl
Somatostatinoma + + + + Nl Nl Nl
Lymphoma + + + + + + + Nl Nl Nl
  • Primary tumor of GI tract
Colorectal cancer + + + + + + + Nl Nl Nl
Medication/Toxicity Medications + + + ± ± + + ↑/↓ Nl Nl
  • Elevated plasma level of drug
  • Clinical evaluation after discontinuation of the drugs
Factitious diarrhea + + + + + ↑/↓ Nl Nl Nl
  • Clinical evaluation after discontinuation of the drugs
Heavy metal ingestion + + + + Nl Nl Nl Nl
  • Elevated plasma heavy metal level
  • Plasma level of heavy metal
Organophosphate poisoning + + + + Nl Nl Nl Nl
  • Clinical diagnosis
Opium withdrawal + + + + Nl Nl Nl Nl
Iatrogenic Short bowel syndrome + + + + + Nl Nl
Radiation enteritis + + + + + + + + + Nl Nl Nl
Dumping syndrome + + + + Nl Nl Nl Nl
Others Abetalipoproteinemia + + + + + Nl Nl Nl Nl
Hyperthyroidism + + ± + + Nl Nl Nl Nl
Diabetic neuropathy + + + + + Nl Nl Nl
Systemic sclerosis + + ± + + + + Nl Nl Nl
  • Clinical diagnosis
  • Followed by serologic tests
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