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In organic chemistry, propyl is a three-carbon alkyl substituent with chemical formula -C3H7. It is the substituent form of the alkane propane.

For example:

File:Propyl ethanoate.png
Propyl ethanoate, also called propyl acetate.

This is propyl ethanoate, an ester. The propyl group is attached to the molecule after the middle oxygen.

There are two isomeric forms of propyl:

  • with the substituent attached to one of the end carbons (called 1-propyl in the IUPAC nomenclature, or n-propyl (Pr-n) in the old naming system); and
  • with the substituent attached to the middle carbon (called 2-propyl in the IUPAC system, or isopropyl in the old system).

In addition there is a third, cyclic, form called cyclopropyl, or c-propyl. It is not isomeric with the other two forms, having the chemical formula -C3H5.

File:Propyl groups.png
From left to right: the two isomeric propyl groups 1- and 2-propyl, and the non-isomeric cyclopropyl group.


See also