Difference between revisions of "Mesenteric ischemia pathophysiology"

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(Overview)
((D) Vasoactive and humoral factors regulating the mesenteric blood flow)
 
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=== '''Pathogenesis''' ===
 
=== '''Pathogenesis''' ===
 
Intestinal mucosal damage occurs in response to ischemic insult. In response to providing protection from ischemia, mesenteric vessels undergo intrinsic auto regulation, which is an adaptive response to ischemia. In order to compensate for the ischemia, there is vasoconstriction of mesenteric vessels resulting in increased tissue oxygen extraction along with vasodilation of the collateral vessels. Owing to this mechanism, intestine is able to compensate for around 75% reduction in blood flow.<ref name="pmid11464607">{{cite journal| author=Sánchez-Fernández P, Mier y Díaz J, Blanco-Benavides R| title=[Acute mesenteric ischemia. Profile of an aggressive disease]. | journal=Rev Gastroenterol Mex | year= 2000 | volume= 65 | issue= 3 | pages= 134-40 | pmid=11464607 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=11464607  }} </ref><ref name="pmid27901324">{{cite journal| author=Savlania A, Tripathi RK| title=Acute mesenteric ischemia: current multidisciplinary approach. | journal=J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) | year= 2017 | volume= 58 | issue= 2 | pages= 339-350 | pmid=27901324 | doi=10.23736/S0021-9509.16.09751-2 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=27901324  }} </ref><ref name="pmid: 15772787">{{cite journal| author=Yasuhara H| title=Acute mesenteric ischemia: the challenge of gastroenterology. | journal=Surg Today | year= 2005 | volume= 35 | issue= 3 | pages= 185-95 | pmid=: 15772787 | doi=10.1007/s00595-004-2924-0 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=15772787  }} </ref><ref name="Deitch2012">{{cite journal|last1=Deitch|first1=Edwin A.|title=Gut-origin sepsis: Evolution of a concept|journal=The Surgeon|volume=10|issue=6|year=2012|pages=350–356|issn=1479666X|doi=10.1016/j.surge.2012.03.003}}</ref><ref name="pmid7065183">{{cite journal| author=Kvietys PR, Granger DN| title=Relation between intestinal blood flow and oxygen uptake. | journal=Am J Physiol | year= 1982 | volume= 242 | issue= 3 | pages= G202-8 | pmid=7065183 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=7065183  }} </ref><ref name="pmid6660300">{{cite journal| author=Granger DN, Granger HJ| title=Systems analysis of intestinal hemodynamics and oxygenation. | journal=Am J Physiol | year= 1983 | volume= 245 | issue= 6 | pages= G786-96 | pmid=6660300 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=6660300  }} </ref>
 
Intestinal mucosal damage occurs in response to ischemic insult. In response to providing protection from ischemia, mesenteric vessels undergo intrinsic auto regulation, which is an adaptive response to ischemia. In order to compensate for the ischemia, there is vasoconstriction of mesenteric vessels resulting in increased tissue oxygen extraction along with vasodilation of the collateral vessels. Owing to this mechanism, intestine is able to compensate for around 75% reduction in blood flow.<ref name="pmid11464607">{{cite journal| author=Sánchez-Fernández P, Mier y Díaz J, Blanco-Benavides R| title=[Acute mesenteric ischemia. Profile of an aggressive disease]. | journal=Rev Gastroenterol Mex | year= 2000 | volume= 65 | issue= 3 | pages= 134-40 | pmid=11464607 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=11464607  }} </ref><ref name="pmid27901324">{{cite journal| author=Savlania A, Tripathi RK| title=Acute mesenteric ischemia: current multidisciplinary approach. | journal=J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) | year= 2017 | volume= 58 | issue= 2 | pages= 339-350 | pmid=27901324 | doi=10.23736/S0021-9509.16.09751-2 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=27901324  }} </ref><ref name="pmid: 15772787">{{cite journal| author=Yasuhara H| title=Acute mesenteric ischemia: the challenge of gastroenterology. | journal=Surg Today | year= 2005 | volume= 35 | issue= 3 | pages= 185-95 | pmid=: 15772787 | doi=10.1007/s00595-004-2924-0 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=15772787  }} </ref><ref name="Deitch2012">{{cite journal|last1=Deitch|first1=Edwin A.|title=Gut-origin sepsis: Evolution of a concept|journal=The Surgeon|volume=10|issue=6|year=2012|pages=350–356|issn=1479666X|doi=10.1016/j.surge.2012.03.003}}</ref><ref name="pmid7065183">{{cite journal| author=Kvietys PR, Granger DN| title=Relation between intestinal blood flow and oxygen uptake. | journal=Am J Physiol | year= 1982 | volume= 242 | issue= 3 | pages= G202-8 | pmid=7065183 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=7065183  }} </ref><ref name="pmid6660300">{{cite journal| author=Granger DN, Granger HJ| title=Systems analysis of intestinal hemodynamics and oxygenation. | journal=Am J Physiol | year= 1983 | volume= 245 | issue= 6 | pages= G786-96 | pmid=6660300 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=6660300  }} </ref>
 
 
Disturbance in the following factors play a role in the development of mesenteric ischemia:<ref name="pmid6101568">{{cite journal| author=Granger DN, Richardson PD, Kvietys PR, Mortillaro NA| title=Intestinal blood flow. | journal=Gastroenterology | year= 1980 | volume= 78 | issue= 4 | pages= 837-63 | pmid=6101568 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=6101568  }} </ref>
 
Disturbance in the following factors play a role in the development of mesenteric ischemia:<ref name="pmid6101568">{{cite journal| author=Granger DN, Richardson PD, Kvietys PR, Mortillaro NA| title=Intestinal blood flow. | journal=Gastroenterology | year= 1980 | volume= 78 | issue= 4 | pages= 837-63 | pmid=6101568 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=6101568  }} </ref>
 
+
*(a) Mesenteric blood supply (General circulation)
(a) Mesenteric blood supply (General circulation)
+
*(b) Collateral circulation
 
+
*(c) Response of mesenteric vasculature to autonomic stimuli
(b) Collateral circulation
+
*(d) Vasoactive and humoral factors
 
+
===(A) Mesenteric blood supply (General circulation)===
(c) Response of mesenteric vasculature to autonomic stimuli
 
 
 
(d) Vasoactive and humoral factors
 
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{{Family tree | C01 | | | | C02 |C01= Box 3 in Row 3| C02= Box 4 in Row 4}}
 
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'''(a) Blood supply of the mesentery:'''
 
 
 
The arterial supply of the intestine originates from three major arteries:<ref name="pmid11759648">{{cite journal| author=Kumar S, Sarr MG, Kamath PS| title=Mesenteric venous thrombosis. | journal=N Engl J Med | year= 2001 | volume= 345 | issue= 23 | pages= 1683-8 | pmid=11759648 | doi=10.1056/NEJMra010076 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=11759648  }} </ref><ref name="pmid19491858">{{cite journal| author=Ha C, Magowan S, Accortt NA, Chen J, Stone CD| title=Risk of arterial thrombotic events in inflammatory bowel disease. | journal=Am J Gastroenterol | year= 2009 | volume= 104 | issue= 6 | pages= 1445-51 | pmid=19491858 | doi=10.1038/ajg.2009.81 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=19491858  }} </ref><ref name="pmid6101568">{{cite journal| author=Granger DN, Richardson PD, Kvietys PR, Mortillaro NA| title=Intestinal blood flow. | journal=Gastroenterology | year= 1980 | volume= 78 | issue= 4 | pages= 837-63 | pmid=6101568 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=6101568  }} </ref>
 
* Superior mesenteric artery (SMA)
 
** Supplies the small intestine, proximal and mid colon upto the splenic flexure.
 
* Inferior mesenteric artery (IMA)
 
** Supplies hind gut starting from the splenic flexure to the rectum.
 
* Celiac artery (CA)
 
** Supplies the foregut, hepatobiliary system and spleen.
 
 
 
* The venous system parallels the arterial branches and drains into the portal venous system.
 
 
* The mesenteric circulation recevies approximately 25% of the resting and 35% of the postprandial cardiac output.
 
* The mesenteric circulation recevies approximately 25% of the resting and 35% of the postprandial cardiac output.
 
* Mucosal and submucosal layers of the intestine receive 70% of the mesenteric blood flow, with the rest supplying the muscularis and serosal layers.
 
* Mucosal and submucosal layers of the intestine receive 70% of the mesenteric blood flow, with the rest supplying the muscularis and serosal layers.
 +
 +
* The arterial supply of the intestine originates from three major arteries which include superior mesenteric artery, inferior mesenteric artery and celiac artery. :<ref name="pmid11759648">{{cite journal| author=Kumar S, Sarr MG, Kamath PS| title=Mesenteric venous thrombosis. | journal=N Engl J Med | year= 2001 | volume= 345 | issue= 23 | pages= 1683-8 | pmid=11759648 | doi=10.1056/NEJMra010076 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=11759648  }} </ref><ref name="pmid19491858">{{cite journal| author=Ha C, Magowan S, Accortt NA, Chen J, Stone CD| title=Risk of arterial thrombotic events in inflammatory bowel disease. | journal=Am J Gastroenterol | year= 2009 | volume= 104 | issue= 6 | pages= 1445-51 | pmid=19491858 | doi=10.1038/ajg.2009.81 | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=19491858  }} </ref><ref name="pmid6101568">{{cite journal| author=Granger DN, Richardson PD, Kvietys PR, Mortillaro NA| title=Intestinal blood flow. | journal=Gastroenterology | year= 1980 | volume= 78 | issue= 4 | pages= 837-63 | pmid=6101568 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=6101568  }} </ref>
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
!Arterial
 +
!Region supplied
 +
|-
 +
|Superior mesenteric artery (SMA)
 +
|Small intestine, proximal and mid colon upto the splenic flexure.
 +
|-
 +
|Inferior mesenteric artery (IMA)
 +
|hind gut starting from the splenic flexure to the rectum.
 +
|-
 +
|Celiac artery (CA)
 +
|foregut, hepatobiliary system and spleen.
 +
|-
 +
! colspan="2" |Venous supply
 +
|-
 +
| colspan="2" |The venous system parallels the arterial branches and drains into the portal venous system.
 +
|}
 
'''Commonly affected arteries:'''
 
'''Commonly affected arteries:'''
 
* Embolus can typically lodge into points of normal anatomic narrowing.  
 
* Embolus can typically lodge into points of normal anatomic narrowing.  
 
* This makes [[superior mesenteric artery]] the most vulnerable site because of its relatively larger diameter (more blood flow) and low take off angle (more likely to  from the aorta.
 
* This makes [[superior mesenteric artery]] the most vulnerable site because of its relatively larger diameter (more blood flow) and low take off angle (more likely to  from the aorta.
 
*The majority of emboli lodge 3-10cm distal to the origin of [[superior mesenteric artery]], classically sparing the proximal jejunum and colon.
 
*The majority of emboli lodge 3-10cm distal to the origin of [[superior mesenteric artery]], classically sparing the proximal jejunum and colon.
'''(b) Collateral circulation:'''
+
===(B) Collateral circulation===
 
 
 
The role of collateral circulation in the development of mesenteric ischemia is as follows:<ref name="pmid9146714">{{cite journal| author=McKinsey JF, Gewertz BL| title=Acute mesenteric ischemia. | journal=Surg Clin North Am | year= 1997 | volume= 77 | issue= 2 | pages= 307-18 | pmid=9146714 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=9146714  }} </ref><ref name="pmid21326561">{{cite journal| author=Walker TG| title=Mesenteric vasculature and collateral pathways. | journal=Semin Intervent Radiol | year= 2009 | volume= 26 | issue= 3 | pages= 167-74 | pmid=21326561 | doi=10.1055/s-0029-1225663 | pmc=3036491 | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=21326561  }} </ref><ref name="pmid3554567">{{cite journal| author=Fisher DF, Fry WJ| title=Collateral mesenteric circulation. | journal=Surg Gynecol Obstet | year= 1987 | volume= 164 | issue= 5 | pages= 487-92 | pmid=3554567 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=3554567  }} </ref><ref name="pmid4025549">{{cite journal| author=Bulkley GB, Womack WA, Downey JM, Kvietys PR, Granger DN| title=Characterization of segmental collateral blood flow in the small intestine. | journal=Am J Physiol | year= 1985 | volume= 249 | issue= 2 Pt 1 | pages= G228-35 | pmid=4025549 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=4025549  }} </ref><ref name="pmid: 3738747">{{cite journal| author=Bulkley GB, Womack WA, Downey JM, Kvietys PR, Granger DN| title=Collateral blood flow in segmental intestinal ischemia: effects of vasoactive agents. | journal=Surgery | year= 1986 | volume= 100 | issue= 2 | pages= 157-66 | pmid=: 3738747 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=3738747  }} </ref><ref name="pmid4025549">{{cite journal| author=Bulkley GB, Womack WA, Downey JM, Kvietys PR, Granger DN| title=Characterization of segmental collateral blood flow in the small intestine. | journal=Am J Physiol | year= 1985 | volume= 249 | issue= 2 Pt 1 | pages= G228-35 | pmid=4025549 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=4025549  }} </ref>
 
The role of collateral circulation in the development of mesenteric ischemia is as follows:<ref name="pmid9146714">{{cite journal| author=McKinsey JF, Gewertz BL| title=Acute mesenteric ischemia. | journal=Surg Clin North Am | year= 1997 | volume= 77 | issue= 2 | pages= 307-18 | pmid=9146714 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=9146714  }} </ref><ref name="pmid21326561">{{cite journal| author=Walker TG| title=Mesenteric vasculature and collateral pathways. | journal=Semin Intervent Radiol | year= 2009 | volume= 26 | issue= 3 | pages= 167-74 | pmid=21326561 | doi=10.1055/s-0029-1225663 | pmc=3036491 | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=21326561  }} </ref><ref name="pmid3554567">{{cite journal| author=Fisher DF, Fry WJ| title=Collateral mesenteric circulation. | journal=Surg Gynecol Obstet | year= 1987 | volume= 164 | issue= 5 | pages= 487-92 | pmid=3554567 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=3554567  }} </ref><ref name="pmid4025549">{{cite journal| author=Bulkley GB, Womack WA, Downey JM, Kvietys PR, Granger DN| title=Characterization of segmental collateral blood flow in the small intestine. | journal=Am J Physiol | year= 1985 | volume= 249 | issue= 2 Pt 1 | pages= G228-35 | pmid=4025549 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=4025549  }} </ref><ref name="pmid: 3738747">{{cite journal| author=Bulkley GB, Womack WA, Downey JM, Kvietys PR, Granger DN| title=Collateral blood flow in segmental intestinal ischemia: effects of vasoactive agents. | journal=Surgery | year= 1986 | volume= 100 | issue= 2 | pages= 157-66 | pmid=: 3738747 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=3738747  }} </ref><ref name="pmid4025549">{{cite journal| author=Bulkley GB, Womack WA, Downey JM, Kvietys PR, Granger DN| title=Characterization of segmental collateral blood flow in the small intestine. | journal=Am J Physiol | year= 1985 | volume= 249 | issue= 2 Pt 1 | pages= G228-35 | pmid=4025549 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=4025549  }} </ref>
 
* Intestines receive collateral blood supply at all levels from the superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries, branches of the celiac artery, which provides protection from ischemia.  
 
* Intestines receive collateral blood supply at all levels from the superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries, branches of the celiac artery, which provides protection from ischemia.  
 
* These arteries can compensate for 75% reduction in mesenteric blood flow for upto 12 hours, without substanial injury.
 
* These arteries can compensate for 75% reduction in mesenteric blood flow for upto 12 hours, without substanial injury.
 
 
*  An extensive collateral circulation protects the intestines from transient periods of inadequate perfusion. However, prolonged reduction in splanchnic blood flow leads to vasoconstriction in the affected vascular bed, and eventually reduces collateral blood flow.  
 
*  An extensive collateral circulation protects the intestines from transient periods of inadequate perfusion. However, prolonged reduction in splanchnic blood flow leads to vasoconstriction in the affected vascular bed, and eventually reduces collateral blood flow.  
 
 
* The SMA and IMA communicate via the marginal artery of Drummond and the meandering mesenteric artery.  
 
* The SMA and IMA communicate via the marginal artery of Drummond and the meandering mesenteric artery.  
 
 
* Collateralization between the IMA and systemic circulation occurs in the rectum as the superior rectal (hemorrhoidal) vessels merge with the middle rectal vessels from the internal iliac arteries.
 
* Collateralization between the IMA and systemic circulation occurs in the rectum as the superior rectal (hemorrhoidal) vessels merge with the middle rectal vessels from the internal iliac arteries.
 
* The areas lacking this collateralization are prone towards ischemia.
 
* The areas lacking this collateralization are prone towards ischemia.
'''(c) Vasoactive and humoral factors regulating the mesenteric blood flow:'''
+
===(C) Response of mesentric vasculature to ischemia===
 +
* Mesenteric ischemia occurs when the blood supply to mesentery is reduced leading to disruption of cellular metabolism owing to oxygen and nutrient deficiency.<ref name="pmid26909235">{{cite journal| author=Mastoraki A, Mastoraki S, Tziava E, Touloumi S, Krinos N, Danias N et al.| title=Mesenteric ischemia: Pathogenesis and challenging diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. | journal=World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol | year= 2016 | volume= 7 | issue= 1 | pages= 125-30 | pmid=26909235 | doi=10.4291/wjgp.v7.i1.125 | pmc=4753178 | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=26909235  }} </ref>
 +
* In the first 4 hours following ischemia, necrosis of the mucosal villi occurs.
 +
* Persistent ischemia for more than 6 hours results in transmural, mural or mucosal infarction, ultimately leading to bowel perforation.
 +
* Prolonged ischemia leads to progressive vasoconstriction of the mesenetric vessels which raises the pressure in them resulting in lowering the collateral flow.
 +
* This is followed by vasodilation, trying to restore blood flow to the area of ischemic insult.
 +
* The sequence of events that take place in the small intestine subsequent to decreased blood flow:
 +
{{Family tree/start}}
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{{familytree | boxstyle= text-align: Center; | | | |B01| | | | |B01= Ischemic insult
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| boxstyle_B02= text-align: Center;
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| boxstyle_B03= text-align: left;
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}}
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{{Family tree | | | | |!| | | | | }}
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{{familytree | boxstyle= text-align: Center; | | | |B01| | | | |B01= Decreased delivery of oxygen and nutrients
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| boxstyle_B02= text-align: Center;
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| boxstyle_B03= text-align: left;
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}}
 +
{{Family tree | | | | |!| | | | | }}
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{{familytree | boxstyle= text-align: Center; | | | |B01| | | | |B01= Disruption in cellular metabolism
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| boxstyle_B02= text-align: Center;
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| boxstyle_B03= text-align: left;
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}}
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{{Family tree | | | | |!| | | | | }}
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{{familytree | boxstyle= text-align: Center; | | | |B01| | | | |B01= Tissue injury due to hypoxia and reperfusion
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}}
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{{Family tree | | | | |!| | | | | }}
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{{familytree | boxstyle= text-align: Center; | | | |B01| | | | |B01= Full thickness necrosis of the bowel}}
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{{Family tree | | | | |!| | | | | }}
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{{familytree | boxstyle= text-align: Center; | | | |B01| | | | |B01= Perforation of the bowel wall}}
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{{familytree/end}}
  
Mechansims that control the regulation of vascular tone of mesenteric circulation in response  to periods of stress such as systemic hypotension or postprandial state.
+
{| class="wikitable"
 +
! colspan="2" |'''Post ischemic cellular changes''':
 +
|-
 +
!Time duration dince ischemia
 +
!Pathological changes in the small intestine
 +
|-
 +
|3-4 hours
 +
|Necrosis of the mucosal villi
 +
|-
 +
|6 hours
 +
|Transmural, mural or mucosal infarction
 +
|-
 +
|1-4 days
 +
|Bowel hemorrhage
 +
|}
 +
'''Reperfusion injury:'''
 +
* Restoration of blood flow to the area of ischemic insult results in reperfusion injury.
 +
* This leads to release of oxygen free radicals, toxic byproducts of ischemic injury and neutrophil activation.
 +
===(D) Vasoactive and humoral factors regulating the mesenteric blood flow===
 +
* Vasoactive and humoral factors control the regulation of vascular tone of mesenteric circulation in response  to periods of stress such as systemic hypotension or postprandial state.
  
Physiologically mesenteric circulation is affected by:<ref name="pmid10052599">{{cite journal| author=Hansen MB, Dresner LS, Wait RB| title=Profile of neurohumoral agents on mesenteric and intestinal blood flow in health and disease. | journal=Physiol Res | year= 1998 | volume= 47 | issue= 5 | pages= 307-27 | pmid=10052599 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=10052599  }} </ref><ref name="pmid8370303">{{cite journal| author=Schoenberg MH, Beger HG| title=Reperfusion injury after intestinal ischemia. | journal=Crit Care Med | year= 1993 | volume= 21 | issue= 9 | pages= 1376-86 | pmid=8370303 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=8370303  }} </ref><ref name="PatelKaleya1992">{{cite journal|last1=Patel|first1=Amit|last2=Kaleya|first2=Ronald N.|last3=Sammartano|first3=Robert J.|title=Pathophysiology of Mesenteric Ischemia|journal=Surgical Clinics of North America|volume=72|issue=1|year=1992|pages=31–41|issn=00396109|doi=10.1016/S0039-6109(16)45626-4}}</ref><ref name="pmid8703630">{{cite journal| author=Takala J| title=Determinants of splanchnic blood flow. | journal=Br J Anaesth | year= 1996 | volume= 77 | issue= 1 | pages= 50-8 | pmid=8703630 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=8703630  }} </ref><ref name="pmid7386643">{{cite journal| author=Granger HJ, Norris CP| title=Intrinsic regulation of intestinal oxygenation in the anesthetized dog. | journal=Am J Physiol | year= 1980 | volume= 238 | issue= 6 | pages= H836-43 | pmid=7386643 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=7386643  }} </ref><ref name="pmid4684756">{{cite journal| author=Granger HJ, Shepherd AP| title=Intrinsic microvascular control of tissue oxygen delivery. | journal=Microvasc Res | year= 1973 | volume= 5 | issue= 1 | pages= 49-72 | pmid=4684756 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=4684756  }} </ref>
+
* Physiologically mesenteric circulation is affected by:<ref name="pmid10052599">{{cite journal| author=Hansen MB, Dresner LS, Wait RB| title=Profile of neurohumoral agents on mesenteric and intestinal blood flow in health and disease. | journal=Physiol Res | year= 1998 | volume= 47 | issue= 5 | pages= 307-27 | pmid=10052599 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=10052599  }} </ref><ref name="pmid8370303">{{cite journal| author=Schoenberg MH, Beger HG| title=Reperfusion injury after intestinal ischemia. | journal=Crit Care Med | year= 1993 | volume= 21 | issue= 9 | pages= 1376-86 | pmid=8370303 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=8370303  }} </ref><ref name="PatelKaleya1992">{{cite journal|last1=Patel|first1=Amit|last2=Kaleya|first2=Ronald N.|last3=Sammartano|first3=Robert J.|title=Pathophysiology of Mesenteric Ischemia|journal=Surgical Clinics of North America|volume=72|issue=1|year=1992|pages=31–41|issn=00396109|doi=10.1016/S0039-6109(16)45626-4}}</ref><ref name="pmid8703630">{{cite journal| author=Takala J| title=Determinants of splanchnic blood flow. | journal=Br J Anaesth | year= 1996 | volume= 77 | issue= 1 | pages= 50-8 | pmid=8703630 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=8703630  }} </ref><ref name="pmid7386643">{{cite journal| author=Granger HJ, Norris CP| title=Intrinsic regulation of intestinal oxygenation in the anesthetized dog. | journal=Am J Physiol | year= 1980 | volume= 238 | issue= 6 | pages= H836-43 | pmid=7386643 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=7386643  }} </ref><ref name="pmid4684756">{{cite journal| author=Granger HJ, Shepherd AP| title=Intrinsic microvascular control of tissue oxygen delivery. | journal=Microvasc Res | year= 1973 | volume= 5 | issue= 1 | pages= 49-72 | pmid=4684756 | doi= | pmc= | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=4684756  }} </ref>
* Intrinsic regulatory system that includes metabolic and myogenic factors.
+
** '''Intrinsic regulatory system''' that includes metabolic and myogenic factors.
* Extrinsic regulatory system that includes neural and humoral factors.
+
** '''Extrinsic regulatory system''' that includes neural and humoral factors.
'''Intrinsic regulation:'''
+
'''<u>Intrinsic regulation:</u>'''
* Metabolic factors:   
+
* '''Metabolic factors:'''  
 
** Reduction in blood supply to the mesentery causes adaptive changes in the splanchnic circulation.   
 
** Reduction in blood supply to the mesentery causes adaptive changes in the splanchnic circulation.   
 
** A discrepancy between tissue oxyegn demand and supply raises the concentration of local metabolites such as hydrogen, potassium, carbon dioxide, and adenosine, resulting in vasodilation and hyperemia.  
 
** A discrepancy between tissue oxyegn demand and supply raises the concentration of local metabolites such as hydrogen, potassium, carbon dioxide, and adenosine, resulting in vasodilation and hyperemia.  
  
* Myogenic factors:  
+
* '''Myogenic factors:'''
 
** Myogenic theory suggests that arteriolar tension receptors act to regulate vascular resistance in accordance with the transmural pressure.  
 
** Myogenic theory suggests that arteriolar tension receptors act to regulate vascular resistance in accordance with the transmural pressure.  
 
** An acute decrease in perfusion pressure is compensated for by a reduction in arteriolar wall tension, thereby maintaining splanchnic blood flow.
 
** An acute decrease in perfusion pressure is compensated for by a reduction in arteriolar wall tension, thereby maintaining splanchnic blood flow.
'''Extrinsic regulation:'''
+
'''<u>Extrinsic regulation:</u>'''
 
* Neural component:  
 
* Neural component:  
 
** The extrinsic neural component of splanchnic circulatory regulation comprises the alpha-activated vasoconstrictor fibers.  
 
** The extrinsic neural component of splanchnic circulatory regulation comprises the alpha-activated vasoconstrictor fibers.  
Line 162: Line 203:
 
Supplied by the end arteries of IMA with no collateral circulation.
 
Supplied by the end arteries of IMA with no collateral circulation.
  
'''Mechanism of ischemia:'''<ref name="pmid26909235">{{cite journal| author=Mastoraki A, Mastoraki S, Tziava E, Touloumi S, Krinos N, Danias N et al.| title=Mesenteric ischemia: Pathogenesis and challenging diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. | journal=World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol | year= 2016 | volume= 7 | issue= 1 | pages= 125-30 | pmid=26909235 | doi=10.4291/wjgp.v7.i1.125 | pmc=4753178 | url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/eutils/elink.fcgi?dbfrom=pubmed&tool=sumsearch.org/cite&retmode=ref&cmd=prlinks&id=26909235  }} </ref>
 
 
The sequence of events that take place in the small intestine subsequent to decreased blood flow:
 
 
{{Family tree/start}}
 
{{familytree | boxstyle= text-align: Center; | | | |B01| | | | |B01= Ischemic insult
 
| boxstyle_B02= text-align: Center;
 
| boxstyle_B03= text-align: left;
 
}}
 
{{Family tree | | | | |!| | | | | }}
 
{{familytree | boxstyle= text-align: Center; | | | |B01| | | | |B01= Decreased delivery of oxygen and nutrients
 
| boxstyle_B02= text-align: Center;
 
| boxstyle_B03= text-align: left;
 
}}
 
{{Family tree | | | | |!| | | | | }}
 
{{familytree | boxstyle= text-align: Center; | | | |B01| | | | |B01= Disruption in cellular metabolism
 
| boxstyle_B02= text-align: Center;
 
| boxstyle_B03= text-align: left;
 
}}
 
{{Family tree | | | | |!| | | | | }}
 
{{familytree | boxstyle= text-align: Center; | | | |B01| | | | |B01= Tissue injury due to hypoxia and reperfusion
 
}}
 
{{Family tree | | | | |!| | | | | }}
 
{{familytree | boxstyle= text-align: Center; | | | |B01| | | | |B01= Full thickness necrosis of the bowel
 
}}
 
{{Family tree | | | | |!| | | | | }}
 
{{familytree | boxstyle= text-align: Center; | | | |B01| | | | |B01= Perforation of the bowel wall
 
}}
 
 
{{Family tree/end}}
 
* Mesenteric ischemia occurs when the blood supply to mesentery is reduced leading to disruption of cellular metabolism owing to oxygen and nutrient deficiency.
 
* In the first 4 hours following ischemia, necrosis of the mucosal villi occurs.
 
* Persistent ischemia for more than 6 hours results in transmural, mural or mucosal infarction, ultimately leading to bowel perforation.
 
* Prolonged ischemia leads to progressive vasoconstriction of the mesenetric vessels which raises the pressure in them resulting in lowering the collateral flow.
 
* This is followed by vasodilation, trying to restore blood flow to the area of ischemic insult.
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!Time duration dince ischemia
 
!Pathological changes in the small intestine
 
|-
 
|3-4 hours
 
|Necrosis of the mucosal villi
 
|-
 
|6 hours
 
|Transmural,mural or mucosal infarction
 
|-
 
|1-4 days
 
|Bowel hemorrhage
 
|}
 
'''Response to ischemia:'''
 
* Restoration of blood flow to the area of ischemic insult resutls in reperfusion injury.
 
  
* This leads to release of oxygen free radicals, toxic byproducts of ischemic injury and neutrophil activation.
+
===Pathogenesis of Occlusive Mesentric ischemia===
'''Post ischemic cellular changes''':
+
{{familytree/start|summary=Sample 1}}
 +
{{familytree| | | | | | | | | |B01| | | | | | | | |B01= Vascular occlusion|}}
 +
{{familytree| | | | | | | | | | |!| | | | | | | | |}}
 +
{{familytree| | | | | | | | | |C01| | | | | | | | |C01= Blood flow<metabolic demand|}}
 +
{{familytree| | | |,|-|-|-|-|-|-|+|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|.| |}}
 +
{{familytree| | |D01| | | | |D02| | | | | | |D03|D01= Mucosal barrier disruption and bacterial translocation into the circulation|D02= Anerobic glycolysis in mucosa and lactate production|D03= activation of vascular and humoral factors leading to vasoconstriction|}}
 +
{{familytree| | | |!| | | | | | |!| | | | | | | |!|}}
 +
{{familytree| | |E01| | | | |E02| | | | | | |E03|E01= Systemic activation of inflammatory response|E02= Lactic acidosis|E03= Intestinal necrosis|}}
 +
{{familytree| | | |`|-|-|-|-|-|-|+|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|'| |}}
 +
{{familytree| | | | | | | | | | |!| | | | | | | | |}}
 +
{{familytree| | | | | | | | | |F01| | | | | | | | |F01= Multiorgan failure|}}
 +
{{familytree/end}}
 +
===Pathogenesis of non-occlusive===
 +
{{familytree/start|summary=Sample 1}}
 +
{{familytree| | | | X01 | | | | | | | | | | | X02 |X01=Hypovolemia|X02= Cardiac failure|}}
 +
{{familytree| | | |`|-|-|-|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|'| |}}
 +
{{familytree| | | | | | | | | |A01| | | | | | | | |A01= Endogenous vasoconstriction|}}
 +
{{familytree| | | | | | | | | | |!| | | | | | | | |}}
 +
{{familytree| | | | | | | | | |B01| | | | | | | | |B01= Splanchnic vasoconstriction|}}
 +
{{familytree| | | | | | | | | | |!| | | | | | | | |}}
 +
{{familytree| | | | | | | | | |C01| | | | | | | | |C01= Gut mucosal hypoperfusion|}}
 +
{{familytree| | | |,|-|-|-|-|-|-|^|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|.| |}}
 +
{{familytree| | |D01| | | | | | | | | | | | | |D02|D01= Restoration of blood by vasodialtion of collaterals|D02= Gut mucosal barrier disruption|}}
 +
{{familytree| | | |!| | | | | | | | | | | | | | |!|}}
 +
{{familytree| | |E01| | | | | | | | | | | | | |E02|E01= Ischemia-reperfusion injury|E02= Increased mucosal perfusion to bacterial toxins|}}
 +
{{familytree| | | |`|-|-|-|-|-|-|v|-|-|-|-|-|-|-|'| |}}
 +
{{familytree| | | | | | | | | | |!| | | | | | | | |}}
 +
{{familytree| | | | | | | | | |F01| | | | | | | | |F01= Activation of inflammatory response|}}
 +
{{familytree/end}}
  
 
==Gross Pathology==
 
==Gross Pathology==
Line 221: Line 240:
 
*Late stage of ischemia: Edematous, friable and hemorrhagic bowel wall.
 
*Late stage of ischemia: Edematous, friable and hemorrhagic bowel wall.
  
 ==References==
+
==References==
  
 
{{Reflist|2}}
 
{{Reflist|2}}
  
 
[[Category:Needs content]]
 
[[Category:Needs content]]

Latest revision as of 22:03, 12 December 2017

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Feham Tariq, MD [2]

Overview

The factors that regulate the intestinal blood flow play a vital role in the development of mesenteric ischemia. Mucosa of the intestines has a high metabolic activity and accordingly a high blood flow requirement. The majority of blood supply of the intestine comes from the superior mesenteric artery, with a collateral blood supply from superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries (branches of the celiac artery) as well as the inferior mesenteric artery. The splanchnic circulation (arteries supplying the viscera) receives 15-35% of the cardiac output, making it sensitive to the effects of decreased perfusion. Mesenteric ischemia occurs when intestinal blood supply is compromised by more than 50% of the original blood flow without activation of adaptive responses. This can lead to disruption of mucosal barrier, allowing the release of bacterial toxins (present in the intestinal lumen) and vasoactive mediators which ultimately lead to complete necrosis (cell death) of the intestinal mucosa. This can further progress to depression in myocardial activity, sepsis, multiorgan failure, and without prompt intervention, even death.[1]

Pathophysiology

Pathogenesis

Intestinal mucosal damage occurs in response to ischemic insult. In response to providing protection from ischemia, mesenteric vessels undergo intrinsic auto regulation, which is an adaptive response to ischemia. In order to compensate for the ischemia, there is vasoconstriction of mesenteric vessels resulting in increased tissue oxygen extraction along with vasodilation of the collateral vessels. Owing to this mechanism, intestine is able to compensate for around 75% reduction in blood flow.[2][3][4][5][6][7] Disturbance in the following factors play a role in the development of mesenteric ischemia:[8]

  • (a) Mesenteric blood supply (General circulation)
  • (b) Collateral circulation
  • (c) Response of mesenteric vasculature to autonomic stimuli
  • (d) Vasoactive and humoral factors

(A) Mesenteric blood supply (General circulation)

  • The mesenteric circulation recevies approximately 25% of the resting and 35% of the postprandial cardiac output.
  • Mucosal and submucosal layers of the intestine receive 70% of the mesenteric blood flow, with the rest supplying the muscularis and serosal layers.
  • The arterial supply of the intestine originates from three major arteries which include superior mesenteric artery, inferior mesenteric artery and celiac artery. :[9][10][8]
Arterial Region supplied
Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) Small intestine, proximal and mid colon upto the splenic flexure.
Inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) hind gut starting from the splenic flexure to the rectum.
Celiac artery (CA) foregut, hepatobiliary system and spleen.
Venous supply
The venous system parallels the arterial branches and drains into the portal venous system.

Commonly affected arteries:

  • Embolus can typically lodge into points of normal anatomic narrowing.
  • This makes superior mesenteric artery the most vulnerable site because of its relatively larger diameter (more blood flow) and low take off angle (more likely to from the aorta.
  • The majority of emboli lodge 3-10cm distal to the origin of superior mesenteric artery, classically sparing the proximal jejunum and colon.

(B) Collateral circulation

The role of collateral circulation in the development of mesenteric ischemia is as follows:[11][12][13][14][15][14]

  • Intestines receive collateral blood supply at all levels from the superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries, branches of the celiac artery, which provides protection from ischemia.
  • These arteries can compensate for 75% reduction in mesenteric blood flow for upto 12 hours, without substanial injury.
  •  An extensive collateral circulation protects the intestines from transient periods of inadequate perfusion. However, prolonged reduction in splanchnic blood flow leads to vasoconstriction in the affected vascular bed, and eventually reduces collateral blood flow.  
  • The SMA and IMA communicate via the marginal artery of Drummond and the meandering mesenteric artery.
  • Collateralization between the IMA and systemic circulation occurs in the rectum as the superior rectal (hemorrhoidal) vessels merge with the middle rectal vessels from the internal iliac arteries.
  • The areas lacking this collateralization are prone towards ischemia.

(C) Response of mesentric vasculature to ischemia

  • Mesenteric ischemia occurs when the blood supply to mesentery is reduced leading to disruption of cellular metabolism owing to oxygen and nutrient deficiency.[16]
  • In the first 4 hours following ischemia, necrosis of the mucosal villi occurs.
  • Persistent ischemia for more than 6 hours results in transmural, mural or mucosal infarction, ultimately leading to bowel perforation.
  • Prolonged ischemia leads to progressive vasoconstriction of the mesenetric vessels which raises the pressure in them resulting in lowering the collateral flow.
  • This is followed by vasodilation, trying to restore blood flow to the area of ischemic insult.
  • The sequence of events that take place in the small intestine subsequent to decreased blood flow:
 
 
 
Ischemic insult
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Decreased delivery of oxygen and nutrients
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Disruption in cellular metabolism
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tissue injury due to hypoxia and reperfusion
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Full thickness necrosis of the bowel
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Perforation of the bowel wall
 
 
 
 
Post ischemic cellular changes:
Time duration dince ischemia Pathological changes in the small intestine
3-4 hours Necrosis of the mucosal villi
6 hours Transmural, mural or mucosal infarction
1-4 days Bowel hemorrhage

Reperfusion injury:

  • Restoration of blood flow to the area of ischemic insult results in reperfusion injury.
  • This leads to release of oxygen free radicals, toxic byproducts of ischemic injury and neutrophil activation.

(D) Vasoactive and humoral factors regulating the mesenteric blood flow

  • Vasoactive and humoral factors control the regulation of vascular tone of mesenteric circulation in response to periods of stress such as systemic hypotension or postprandial state.
  • Physiologically mesenteric circulation is affected by:[17][18][19][20][21][22]
    • Intrinsic regulatory system that includes metabolic and myogenic factors.
    • Extrinsic regulatory system that includes neural and humoral factors.

Intrinsic regulation:

  • Metabolic factors:
    • Reduction in blood supply to the mesentery causes adaptive changes in the splanchnic circulation.
    • A discrepancy between tissue oxyegn demand and supply raises the concentration of local metabolites such as hydrogen, potassium, carbon dioxide, and adenosine, resulting in vasodilation and hyperemia.
  • Myogenic factors:
    • Myogenic theory suggests that arteriolar tension receptors act to regulate vascular resistance in accordance with the transmural pressure.
    • An acute decrease in perfusion pressure is compensated for by a reduction in arteriolar wall tension, thereby maintaining splanchnic blood flow.

Extrinsic regulation:

  • Neural component:
    • The extrinsic neural component of splanchnic circulatory regulation comprises the alpha-activated vasoconstrictor fibers.
    • Intense activation of vasoconstrictor fibers through alpha-adrenergic stimulation results in vasoconstriction of small vessels and a decrease in mesenteric blood flow.
    • After periods of prolonged alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction, blood flow increases, presumably through β-adrenergic stimulation, which acts as a protective response.
    • Although numerous types of neural stimulation (e.g. vagal, cholinergic, histaminergic, and sympathetic) can affect the blood supply of the gut, the adrenergic limb of the autonomic nervous system is the predominant neural influence on splanchnic circulation.
  • Humoral component:
    • Numerous endogenous and exogenous humoral factors affect the splanchnic circulation.
    • Norepinephrine and high doses of epinephrine produce intense vasoconstriction by stimulating the adrenergic receptors.
    • Other pharmacologic compounds that decrease splanchnic blood flow include:
      • Vasopressin
      • Phenylephrine
      • Digoxin
    • Low-dose dopamine causes splanchnic vasodilation, whereas higher doses lead to vasoconstriction by stimulating alpha adrenergic receptors.
    • Exogenous agents that increase mesenteric blood flow include:
      • Papaverine
      • Adenosine
      • Dobutamine
      • Fenoldopam
      • Sodium nitroprusside
    • In addition, numerous natural neurotransmitters can serve as splanchnic vasodilators, including acetylcholine, histamine, nitric oxide, leukotrienes, thromboxane analogues, glucagon, and a couple of gastrointestinal hormones.
Factors regulating mesenteric blood flow
Extrinsic reguatory system
Humoral (endogenous and exogenous) Neural component
Decrease blood flow Increase blood flow Decrease blood flow Increase blood flow
  • Epinephrine (high dose)
  • Norepinephrine (moderate to high dose)
  • Dopamine (high dose)
  • Phenylephrine
  • Vasopressin
  • Angiotensin
  • Digoxin
  • Epinephrine (low dose)
  • Norepinephrine (low dose)
  • Dopamine (low dose)
  • Dobutamine
  • Sodium nitroprusside
  • Papaverine
  • Nitric oxide
  • Acetylcholine
  • Histamine
  • Alpha-adrenergic receptors
  • Dopamenergic receptors
  • Beta adrenergic receptors
Intrinsic regulatory component
Decrease blood flow Increase blood flow
  • Arteriolar tension receptors
  • Hydrogen
  • Potasssium
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Adenosine

Areas prone to ischemia:

Areas prone to ischemia Blood supply
  • Splenic flexure
End arteries of superior mesenteric artery
  • Rectosigmoid junction
End arteries of inferior mesenteric artery
  • The watershed areas that lack collateralization are as follows:
  • Splenic flexure
    • Supplied by the end arteries of SMA with no collateral circulation.
  • Rectosigmoid junction

Supplied by the end arteries of IMA with no collateral circulation.


Pathogenesis of Occlusive Mesentric ischemia

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Vascular occlusion
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Blood flow<metabolic demand
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mucosal barrier disruption and bacterial translocation into the circulation
 
 
 
 
Anerobic glycolysis in mucosa and lactate production
 
 
 
 
 
 
activation of vascular and humoral factors leading to vasoconstriction
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Systemic activation of inflammatory response
 
 
 
 
Lactic acidosis
 
 
 
 
 
 
Intestinal necrosis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Multiorgan failure
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Pathogenesis of non-occlusive

 
 
 
Hypovolemia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cardiac failure
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Endogenous vasoconstriction
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Splanchnic vasoconstriction
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gut mucosal hypoperfusion
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Restoration of blood by vasodialtion of collaterals
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gut mucosal barrier disruption
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ischemia-reperfusion injury
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Increased mucosal perfusion to bacterial toxins
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Activation of inflammatory response
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Gross Pathology

Gross pathology shows following changes:

  • Early stage of ischemia: Intestinal wall in congested.
  • Late stage of ischemia: Edematous, friable and hemorrhagic bowel wall.

References

  1. Rosenblum JD, Boyle CM, Schwartz LB (1997). "The mesenteric circulation. Anatomy and physiology.". Surg Clin North Am. 77 (2): 289–306. PMID 9146713. 
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