Difference between revisions of "Macula densa"

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In the [[kidney]], the '''macula densa''' is an area of closely packed specialized [[cell (biology)|cells]] lining the wall of the thick ascending limb of Henle (TALH) at the point of return of the nephron to the vascular pole of its parent glomerulus [[glomerulus (kidney)|glomerular]] [[vascular pole]].  
 
In the [[kidney]], the '''macula densa''' is an area of closely packed specialized [[cell (biology)|cells]] lining the wall of the thick ascending limb of Henle (TALH) at the point of return of the nephron to the vascular pole of its parent glomerulus [[glomerulus (kidney)|glomerular]] [[vascular pole]].  
  
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Revision as of 04:24, 23 August 2008

WikiDoc Resources for Macula densa

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In the kidney, the macula densa is an area of closely packed specialized cells lining the wall of the thick ascending limb of Henle (TALH) at the point of return of the nephron to the vascular pole of its parent glomerulus glomerular vascular pole.

The cells of the macula densa are sensitive to the ionic content and water volume of the fluid in the TALH, producing molecular signals that promote renin secretion by other cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus.[1] The release of renin is an essential component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which regulates blood pressure and volume.

Histology

The cells of the macula densa cells are taller and have more prominent nuclei than surrounding cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle.

The close proximity and prominence of the nuclei cause this segment of the TALH wall to appear darker in microscopic preparations[2], hence the name macula densa.

Function

Schematic depicting how the RAAS works. Here, activation of the RAAS is initiated by a low perfusion pressure in the juxtaglomerular apparatus

A decrease in blood pressure results in a decreased concentration of sodium and chloride ions at the macula densa. (This is due to reduced filtration by the glomerulus: less filtrate is expelled into Bowman's space and the proximal convoluted tubule; the resulting fluid reaching the macula will have a lower sodium chloride concentration after the sodium chloride is removed along the thick ascending limb of Henle.)

In response, the macula densa cells release prostaglandins, which triggers granular juxtaglomerular cells lining the afferent arterioles to release renin into the bloodstream. (The juxtoglomerular cells can also release renin independently of the macula densa, as they are also triggered by baroreceptors lining the arterioles, and release renin if a fall in blood pressure in the arterioles is detected.) Furthermore, activation of the sympathetic nervous system stimulates renin release through activation of beta-1 receptors.

References

  1. Junqueira, Luiz C. (2003). Basic Histology. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0071378294. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  2. Histology image: 16010loa – Histology Learning System at Boston University

External links

Cost Effectiveness of Macula densa

| group5 = Clinical Trials Involving Macula densa | list5 = Ongoing Trials on Macula densa at Clinical Trials.govTrial results on Macula densaClinical Trials on Macula densa at Google


| group6 = Guidelines / Policies / Government Resources (FDA/CDC) Regarding Macula densa | list6 = US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Macula densaNICE Guidance on Macula densaNHS PRODIGY GuidanceFDA on Macula densaCDC on Macula densa


| group7 = Textbook Information on Macula densa | list7 = Books and Textbook Information on Macula densa


| group8 = Pharmacology Resources on Macula densa | list8 = AND (Dose)}} Dosing of Macula densaAND (drug interactions)}} Drug interactions with Macula densaAND (side effects)}} Side effects of Macula densaAND (Allergy)}} Allergic reactions to Macula densaAND (overdose)}} Overdose information on Macula densaAND (carcinogenicity)}} Carcinogenicity information on Macula densaAND (pregnancy)}} Macula densa in pregnancyAND (pharmacokinetics)}} Pharmacokinetics of Macula densa


| group9 = Genetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Proteinomics of Macula densa | list9 = AND (pharmacogenomics)}} Genetics of Macula densaAND (pharmacogenomics)}} Pharmacogenomics of Macula densaAND (proteomics)}} Proteomics of Macula densa


| group10 = Newstories on Macula densa | list10 = Macula densa in the newsBe alerted to news on Macula densaNews trends on Macula densa


| group11 = Commentary on Macula densa | list11 = Blogs on Macula densa

| group12 = Patient Resources on Macula densa | list12 = Patient resources on Macula densaDiscussion groups on Macula densaPatient Handouts on Macula densaDirections to Hospitals Treating Macula densaRisk calculators and risk factors for Macula densa


| group13 = Healthcare Provider Resources on Macula densa | list13 = Symptoms of Macula densaCauses & Risk Factors for Macula densaDiagnostic studies for Macula densaTreatment of Macula densa

| group14 = Continuing Medical Education (CME) Programs on Macula densa | list14 = CME Programs on Macula densa

| group15 = International Resources on Macula densa | list15 = Macula densa en EspanolMacula densa en Francais

| group16 = Business Resources on Macula densa | list16 = Macula densa in the MarketplacePatents on Macula densa

| group17 = Informatics Resources on Macula densa | list17 = List of terms related to Macula densa


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