Difference between revisions of "Liver transplantation"

Jump to: navigation, search
(Bone density testing)
(Upper endoscopy)
Line 210: Line 210:
** Prostate cancer  
** Prostate cancer  
==== Upper endoscopy ====
==== Upper GI endoscopy ====
* Purpose: detection of [[varices]]
* Purpose: detection of [[varices]]

Revision as of 17:15, 15 January 2018

WikiDoc Resources for Liver transplantation


Most recent articles on Liver transplantation

Most cited articles on Liver transplantation

Review articles on Liver transplantation

Articles on Liver transplantation in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ


Powerpoint slides on Liver transplantation

Images of Liver transplantation

Photos of Liver transplantation

Podcasts & MP3s on Liver transplantation

Videos on Liver transplantation

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Liver transplantation

Bandolier on Liver transplantation

TRIP on Liver transplantation

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Liver transplantation at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Liver transplantation

Clinical Trials on Liver transplantation at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Liver transplantation

NICE Guidance on Liver transplantation


FDA on Liver transplantation

CDC on Liver transplantation


Books on Liver transplantation


Liver transplantation in the news

Be alerted to news on Liver transplantation

News trends on Liver transplantation


Blogs on Liver transplantation


Definitions of Liver transplantation

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Liver transplantation

Discussion groups on Liver transplantation

Patient Handouts on Liver transplantation

Directions to Hospitals Treating Liver transplantation

Risk calculators and risk factors for Liver transplantation

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Liver transplantation

Causes & Risk Factors for Liver transplantation

Diagnostic studies for Liver transplantation

Treatment of Liver transplantation

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Liver transplantation


Liver transplantation en Espanol

Liver transplantation en Francais


Liver transplantation in the Marketplace

Patents on Liver transplantation

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Liver transplantation

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sudarshana Datta, MD [2]


Liver transplantation or hepatic transplantation is the replacement of a diseased liver with a healthy liver allograft. Thomas Starzl used dogs as the first animals for research on liver transplantation in the 1960s In 1963, the first liver transplant in humans was attempted by a surgical team led by Dr. Thomas Starzl of Denver, Colorado, United States. The most common indications for liver transplantation in the United States are hepatitis C virus, alcoholic liver disease, autoimmune liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, hepatitis B virus, liver disease due to inborn errors of metabolism, cancer, biliary atresia and acute liver failure. On the other hand, absolute contraindications to liver transplantation include hepatocellular carcinoma with metastasis, acute liver failure with persistently elevated intracranial pressure ICP >50mmHg, hemangiosarcoma, hilar cholangiocarcinoma, sepsis and active alcohol or drug abuse. Pretransplant evaluations such as cardiopulmonary evaluation, screening for occult cancer, infection and psychosocial evaluation must be performed prior to surgery. The most commonly used technique employed in patients is orthotopic transplantation. This involves removal of the native liver and placement of the donor organ in the same anatomic location as the original liver. Immunosuppressive agents used post-transplantation include cyclosporine, everolimus, mycophenolate, corticosteroids, azathioprine and tacrolimus in different combinations. The most common causes of death in liver transplant patients are infection, malignancy and rejection. It is necessary to monitor patients for signs of complications and treat them effectively.

Liver Transplantation


  • In the 1960s, Thomas Starzl used dogs as the first animals for research on liver transplantation in Boston and Chicago.
  • In 1963, the first liver transplant in humans was attempted by a surgical team led by Dr. Thomas Starzl[1] of Denver, Colorado, United States.
  • Dr. Starzl performed several additional transplants over the next few years before the first short-term success was achieved in 1967 with the first one-year survival post-transplantation.
  • In 1970, the regimen for immunosuppressive therapy following transplant was introduced, but azathioprine and steroids did not improve survival rates of patients.
  • In the 1980s, with the introduction of cyclosporine by Sir Roy Calne, there was an improvement in rejection rates.
  • In 1983, liver transplantation was no longer an experimental modality, but a clinically acceptable form of therapy for both adult and pediatric patients with appropriate indications.
  • In 1986, the introduction of monoclonal antibodies such as muromonab-CD3 [OKT3] further contributed to improvement of quality of immunosuppressive therapy used in patients, with significant decline in rejection rates.
  • In 1988, University of Wisconsin (UW) solution was developed, which ensured a smooth surgery and longer preservation period.
  • In 1992, the concept of xenotransplantation and cloning techniques were introduced by Starzl.
  • In 1999, approximately 5000 procedures were carried out, in contrast to 100 which had been performed a decade earlier.
  • Recently, the introduction of newer immunosuppressive agents such as IL-2 receptor blockers and tacrolimus, have drastically increased patient survival rates to 1 and 5-year rates of approximately 85 and 70 percent respectively.[2]
  • Liver transplantation is now performed at over one hundred centers in the USA, as well as numerous centers in Europe and elsewhere. One year patient survival is 85-90%, and outcomes continue to improve, although liver transplantation remains a formidable procedure with frequent complications.
  • Unfortunately, the supply of liver allografts from non-living donors is far short of the number of potential recipients, a reality that has spurred the development of living donor liver transplantation.
  • In December 2016, 147,128 liver transplants were performed in the US as compared to 7217 in 1998 based on data from the United Organ Sharing (UNOS) network.



Absolute contraindications: [3]

Relative contraindications:[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]

Patient evaluation prior to transplantation

Laboratory investigations

Cardiopulmonary evaluation

Cancer screening

Upper GI endoscopy

Bone densitometry

Vaccinations and evaluation for infection

Psychosocial evaluation and education


Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

Immunosuppressive management


  • Prognosis is quite good:
    • 1-year survival is 83%
    • 5-year survival is 76%
    • 10-year survival is 66%
  • Majority of deaths happen during the first three months after transplantation.

Living donor transplantation

  • Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has emerged in recent decades as a critical surgical option for patients with end stage liver disease, such as cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma often attributable to one or more of the following:[29][37][38]
  • The concept of LDLT is based on:
    • Remarkable regenerative capacities of the human liver
    • Widespread shortage of cadaveric livers for patients awaiting transplant
  • In LDLT, a piece of healthy liver is surgically removed from a living person and transplanted into a recipient, immediately after the recipient’s diseased liver has been entirely removed.
  • Historically, LDLT was used as a means for parents of children with severe liver disease to donate a portion of their healthy liver to replace the damaged liver of their children.
  • In 1986, the first successful LDLT was performed at the Universidade de São Paulo (USP) Medical School, by Dr. Silvano Raia.
  • More technically demanding than standard, cadaveric donor liver transplantation
  • Has faced several ethical problems[39]

Complications of Liver Transplantation

  • Immediate postoperative complications of liver transplantation include:
  • The most common causes of death in liver transplant patients are as follows:
  • To monitor the patient for complications, the following investigations are used:

Laboratory investigations

Imaging studies

Acute and chronic graft rejection

Acute graft rejection:[40]

Chronic graft rejection:


  • After the first 6 months, risk of infection in transplant patients is equal to that of the population.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

  • Most common viral infection (affects 25-85% patients)
  • Occurrence: Between posttransplant months 1 and 3
  • Infection may be:
    • Primary
    • Reactivated

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)

Other less common organisms causing infection include:

External Links


  2. Kanwal F, Dulai GS, Spiegel BM, Yee HF, Gralnek IM (2005). "A comparison of liver transplantation outcomes in the pre- vs. post-MELD eras". Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 21 (2): 169–77. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2005.02321.x. PMID 15679767.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Martin P, DiMartini A, Feng S, Brown R, Fallon M (2014). "Evaluation for liver transplantation in adults: 2013 practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the American Society of Transplantation". Hepatology. 59 (3): 1144–65. PMID 24716201.
  4. Mathurin P, Moreno C, Samuel D, Dumortier J, Salleron J, Durand F, Castel H, Duhamel A, Pageaux GP, Leroy V, Dharancy S, Louvet A, Boleslawski E, Lucidi V, Gustot T, Francoz C, Letoublon C, Castaing D, Belghiti J, Donckier V, Pruvot FR, Duclos-Vallée JC (2011). "Early liver transplantation for severe alcoholic hepatitis". N. Engl. J. Med. 365 (19): 1790–800. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1105703. PMID 22070476.
  5. Cooper C, Kanters S, Klein M, Chaudhury P, Marotta P, Wong P, Kneteman N, Mills EJ (2011). "Liver transplant outcomes in HIV-infected patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis with synthetic cohort". AIDS. 25 (6): 777–86. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e328344febb. PMID 21412058.
  6. Mindikoglu AL, Regev A, Magder LS (2008). "Impact of human immunodeficiency virus on survival after liver transplantation: analysis of United Network for Organ Sharing database". Transplantation. 85 (3): 359–68. doi:10.1097/TP.0b013e3181605fda. PMID 18301332.
  7. Terrault NA, Roland ME, Schiano T, Dove L, Wong MT, Poordad F, Ragni MV, Barin B, Simon D, Olthoff KM, Johnson L, Stosor V, Jayaweera D, Fung J, Sherman KE, Subramanian A, Millis JM, Slakey D, Berg CL, Carlson L, Ferrell L, Stablein DM, Odim J, Fox L, Stock PG (2012). "Outcomes of liver transplant recipients with hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection". Liver Transpl. 18 (6): 716–26. doi:10.1002/lt.23411. PMC 3358510. PMID 22328294.
  8. Cross TJ, Antoniades CG, Muiesan P, Al-Chalabi T, Aluvihare V, Agarwal K, Portmann BC, Rela M, Heaton ND, O'Grady JG, Heneghan MA (2007). "Liver transplantation in patients over 60 and 65 years: an evaluation of long-term outcomes and survival". Liver Transpl. 13 (10): 1382–8. doi:10.1002/lt.21181. PMID 17902123.
  9. Prachalias AA, Pozniak A, Taylor C, Srinivasan P, Muiesan P, Wendon J, Cramp M, Williams R, O'Grady J, Rela M, Heaton ND (2001). "Liver transplantation in adults coinfected with HIV". Transplantation. 72 (10): 1684–8. PMID 11726833.
  10. Wreghitt T (2001). "Liver Transplantation in Adults Coinfected With HIV. Transplantation 2001; 72: 1684". Transplantation. 72 (10): 1594–5. PMID 11726816.
  11. Stock P, Roland M, Carlson L, Freise C, Hirose R, Terrault N, Frassetto L, Coates T, Roberts J, Ascher N (2001). "Solid organ transplantation in HIV-positive patients". Transplant. Proc. 33 (7–8): 3646–8. PMID 11750549.
  12. Stock PG, Roland ME, Carlson L, Freise CE, Roberts JP, Hirose R, Terrault NA, Frassetto LA, Palefsky JM, Tomlanovich SJ, Ascher NL (2003). "Kidney and liver transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: a pilot safety and efficacy study". Transplantation. 76 (2): 370–5. doi:10.1097/01.TP.0000075973.73064.A6. PMID 12883195.
  13. Neff GW, Bonham A, Tzakis AG, Ragni M, Jayaweera D, Schiff ER, Shakil O, Fung JJ (2003). "Orthotopic liver transplantation in patients with human immunodeficiency virus and end-stage liver disease". Liver Transpl. 9 (3): 239–47. doi:10.1053/jlts.2003.50054. PMID 12619020.
  14. Zoghbi GJ, Patel AD, Ershadi RE, Heo J, Bynon JS, Iskandrian AE (2003). "Usefulness of preoperative stress perfusion imaging in predicting prognosis after liver transplantation". Am. J. Cardiol. 92 (9): 1066–71. PMID 14583357.
  15. Guckelberger O, Mutzke F, Glanemann M, Neumann UP, Jonas S, Neuhaus R, Neuhaus P, Langrehr JM (2006). "Validation of cardiovascular risk scores in a liver transplant population". Liver Transpl. 12 (3): 394–401. doi:10.1002/lt.20722. PMID 16498651.
  16. Plotkin JS, Scott VL, Pinna A, Dobsch BP, De Wolf AM, Kang Y (1996). "Morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation". Liver Transpl Surg. 2 (6): 426–30. PMID 9346688.
  17. Colle IO, Moreau R, Godinho E, Belghiti J, Ettori F, Cohen-Solal A, Mal H, Bernuau J, Marty J, Lebrec D, Valla D, Durand F (2003). "Diagnosis of portopulmonary hypertension in candidates for liver transplantation: a prospective study". Hepatology. 37 (2): 401–9. doi:10.1053/jhep.2003.50060. PMID 12540791.
  18. Krowka MJ, Mandell MS, Ramsay MA, Kawut SM, Fallon MB, Manzarbeitia C, Pardo M, Marotta P, Uemoto S, Stoffel MP, Benson JT (2004). "Hepatopulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary hypertension: a report of the multicenter liver transplant database". Liver Transpl. 10 (2): 174–82. doi:10.1002/lt.20016. PMID 14762853.
  19. Starkel P, Vera A, Gunson B, Mutimer D (2002). "Outcome of liver transplantation for patients with pulmonary hypertension". Liver Transpl. 8 (4): 382–8. doi:10.1053/jlts.2002.31343. PMID 11965583.
  20. Lentine KL, Costa SP, Weir MR, Robb JF, Fleisher LA, Kasiske BL, Carithers RL, Ragosta M, Bolton K, Auerbach AD, Eagle KA (2012). "Cardiac disease evaluation and management among kidney and liver transplantation candidates: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology Foundation". J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 60 (5): 434–80. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2012.05.008. PMID 22763103.
  21. Raval Z, Harinstein ME, Skaro AI, Erdogan A, DeWolf AM, Shah SJ, Fix OK, Kay N, Abecassis MI, Gheorghiade M, Flaherty JD (2011). "Cardiovascular risk assessment of the liver transplant candidate". J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 58 (3): 223–31. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2011.03.026. PMID 21737011.
  22. Arguedas MR, Singh H, Faulk DK, Fallon MB (2007). "Utility of pulse oximetry screening for hepatopulmonary syndrome". Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 5 (6): 749–54. doi:10.1016/j.cgh.2006.12.003. PMID 17392034.
  23. Prentis JM, Manas DM, Trenell MI, Hudson M, Jones DJ, Snowden CP (2012). "Submaximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing predicts 90-day survival after liver transplantation". Liver Transpl. 18 (2): 152–9. doi:10.1002/lt.22426. PMID 21898768.
  24. Eghtesad B, Kadry Z, Fung J (2005). "Technical considerations in liver transplantation: what a hepatologist needs to know (and every surgeon should practice)". Liver Transpl. 11 (8): 861–71. doi:10.1002/lt.20529. PMID 16035067.
  25. Tuttle-Newhall JE, Collins BH, Desai DM, Kuo PC, Heneghan MA (2005). "The current status of living donor liver transplantation". Curr Probl Surg. 42 (3): 144–83. PMID 15859440.
  26. Steadman RH (2004). "Anesthesia for liver transplant surgery". Anesthesiol Clin North America. 22 (4): 687–711. doi:10.1016/j.atc.2004.06.009. PMID 15541931.
  27. Park JI, Kim KH, Lee SG (2015). "Laparoscopic living donor hepatectomy: a review of current status". J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci. 22 (11): 779–88. doi:10.1002/jhbp.288. PMID 26449392.
  28. Adam R, McMaster P, O'Grady JG, Castaing D, Klempnauer JL, Jamieson N, Neuhaus P, Lerut J, Salizzoni M, Pollard S, Muhlbacher F, Rogiers X, Garcia Valdecasas JC, Berenguer J, Jaeck D, Moreno Gonzalez E (2003). "Evolution of liver transplantation in Europe: report of the European Liver Transplant Registry". Liver Transpl. 9 (12): 1231–43. doi:10.1016/j.lts.2003.09.018. PMID 14625822.
  29. 29.0 29.1 Shah SA, Levy GA, Adcock LD, Gallagher G, Grant DR (2006). "Adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation". Can. J. Gastroenterol. 20 (5): 339–43. PMC 2659892. PMID 16691300.
  30. Reddy S, Zilvetti M, Brockmann J, McLaren A, Friend P (2004). "Liver transplantation from non-heart-beating donors: current status and future prospects". Liver Transpl. 10 (10): 1223–32. doi:10.1002/lt.20268. PMID 15376341.
  31. Martinez OM, Rosen HR (2005). "Basic concepts in transplant immunology". Liver Transpl. 11 (4): 370–81. doi:10.1002/lt.20406. PMID 15776458.
  32. Friend PJ (1997). "Liver transplantation". Transplant. Proc. 29 (6): 2716–8. PMID 9290801.
  33. McCaughan GW, Koorey DJ (1997). "Liver transplantation". Aust N Z J Med. 27 (4): 371–8. PMID 9448876.
  34. Middleton PF, Duffield M, Lynch SV, Padbury RT, House T, Stanton P, Verran D, Maddern G (2006). "Living donor liver transplantation--adult donor outcomes: a systematic review". Liver Transpl. 12 (1): 24–30. PMID 16498709.
  35. Perry I, Neuberger J (2005). "Immunosuppression: towards a logical approach in liver transplantation". Clin. Exp. Immunol. 139 (1): 2–10. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2005.02662.x. PMC 1809260. PMID 15606606.
  36. Papadopoulos-Köhn A, Achterfeld A, Paul A, Canbay A, Timm J, Jochum C, Gerken G, Herzer K (2015). "Daily low-dose tacrolimus is a safe and effective immunosuppressive regimen during telaprevir-based triple therapy for hepatitis C virus recurrence after liver transplant". Transplantation. 99 (4): 841–7. doi:10.1097/TP.0000000000000399. PMID 25208324.
  37. Nadalin S, Capobianco I, Panaro F, Di Francesco F, Troisi R, Sainz-Barriga M, Muiesan P, Königsrainer A, Testa G (2016). "Living donor liver transplantation in Europe". Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr. 5 (2): 159–75. doi:10.3978/j.issn.2304-3881.2015.10.04. PMC 4824742. PMID 27115011.
  38. Brown RS, Russo MW, Lai M, Shiffman ML, Richardson MC, Everhart JE, Hoofnagle JH (2003). "A survey of liver transplantation from living adult donors in the United States". N. Engl. J. Med. 348 (9): 818–25. doi:10.1056/NEJMsa021345. PMID 12606737.
  39. Krahn LE, DiMartini A (2005). "Psychiatric and psychosocial aspects of liver transplantation". Liver Transpl. 11 (10): 1157–68. doi:10.1002/lt.20578. PMID 16184540.
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 Savitsky EA, Uner AB, Votey SR (1998). "Evaluation of orthotopic liver transplant recipients presenting to the emergency department". Ann Emerg Med. 31 (4): 507–17. PMID 9546022.
  41. Levitsky J, Cohen SM (2006). "The liver transplant recipient: what you need to know for long-term care". J Fam Pract. 55 (2): 136–44. PMID 16451781.
  42. Greendyke WG, Pereira MR (2016). "Infectious Complications and Vaccinations in the Posttransplant Population". Med. Clin. North Am. 100 (3): 587–98. doi:10.1016/j.mcna.2016.01.008. PMID 27095647.
  43. Muñoz SJ (1996). "Long-term management of the liver transplant recipient". Med. Clin. North Am. 80 (5): 1103–20. PMID 8804376.

bg:Чернодробна трансплантация de:Lebertransplantation it:Trapianto di fegato he:השתלת כבד nl:Levertransplantatie fi:Maksansiirto