Difference between revisions of "Liver transplantation"

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(Acute and chronic graft rejection)
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==== Acute and chronic graft rejection ====
==== Acute and chronic graft rejection ====
[[Acute (medicine)|Acute]] [[graft]] [[Transplant rejection|rejection]]:<ref name="pmid9546022">{{cite journal |vauthors=Savitsky EA, Uner AB, Votey SR |title=Evaluation of orthotopic liver transplant recipients presenting to the emergency department |journal=Ann Emerg Med |volume=31 |issue=4 |pages=507–17 |year=1998 |pmid=9546022 |doi= |url=}}</ref>
[[Acute (medicine)|Acute]] [[graft]] [[Transplant rejection|rejection]]:<ref name="pmid9546022">{{cite journal |vauthors=Savitsky EA, Uner AB, Votey SR |title=Evaluation of orthotopic liver transplant recipients presenting to the emergency department |journal=Ann Emerg Med |volume=31 |issue=4 |pages=507–17 |year=1998 |pmid=9546022 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid9546022">{{cite journal |vauthors=Savitsky EA, Uner AB, Votey SR |title=Evaluation of orthotopic liver transplant recipients presenting to the emergency department |journal=Ann Emerg Med |volume=31 |issue=4 |pages=507–17 |year=1998 |pmid=9546022 |doi= |url=}}</ref>
* Vigilance is required for detection of [[Transplant rejection|rejection]] due to subtle presentations.  
* Vigilance is required for detection of [[Transplant rejection|rejection]] due to subtle presentations.  
* Occurrence: roughly 20-70 percent patients
* Occurrence: roughly 20-70 percent patients
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* After the first 6 months, risk of [[infection]] in transplant patients is equal to that of the population.
* After the first 6 months, risk of [[infection]] in transplant patients is equal to that of the population.
* [[Infection]] is primarily [[Nosocomial infection|nosocomial]]. Common [[Organism|organisms]] responsible for causing [[infection]] post-transplant are as follows:   
* [[Infection]] is primarily [[Nosocomial infection|nosocomial]]. Common [[Organism|organisms]] responsible for causing [[infection]] post-transplant are as follows:<ref name="pmid27095647">{{cite journal |vauthors=Greendyke WG, Pereira MR |title=Infectious Complications and Vaccinations in the Posttransplant Population |journal=Med. Clin. North Am. |volume=100 |issue=3 |pages=587–98 |year=2016 |pmid=27095647 |doi=10.1016/j.mcna.2016.01.008 |url=}}</ref>  
** [[Bacteria|Bacterial]] (most common):  
** [[Bacteria|Bacterial]] (most common):  
*** [[Enterococcus|Enterococci]]  
*** [[Enterococcus|Enterococci]]  
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*** [[Anaerobic organism|Anaerobes]]  
*** [[Anaerobic organism|Anaerobes]]  
** Fungal: [[Candidiasis|Candida]] (75% of fungal infections)   
** Fungal: [[Candidiasis|Candida]] (75% of fungal infections)   
** Presenting symptoms: may be non specific  
** Presenting symptoms: may be non specific <ref name="pmid9546022">{{cite journal |vauthors=Savitsky EA, Uner AB, Votey SR |title=Evaluation of orthotopic liver transplant recipients presenting to the emergency department |journal=Ann Emerg Med |volume=31 |issue=4 |pages=507–17 |year=1998 |pmid=9546022 |doi= |url=}}</ref>
*** [[Fever]] (absent or low grade)   
*** [[Fever]] (absent or low grade)   
*** [[Abdominal pain]]   
*** [[Abdominal pain]]   

Revision as of 14:42, 15 January 2018

WikiDoc Resources for Liver transplantation


Most recent articles on Liver transplantation

Most cited articles on Liver transplantation

Review articles on Liver transplantation

Articles on Liver transplantation in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ


Powerpoint slides on Liver transplantation

Images of Liver transplantation

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Podcasts & MP3s on Liver transplantation

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Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Liver transplantation

Bandolier on Liver transplantation

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Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Liver transplantation at Clinical Trials.gov

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Clinical Trials on Liver transplantation at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Liver transplantation

NICE Guidance on Liver transplantation


FDA on Liver transplantation

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Books on Liver transplantation


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Blogs on Liver transplantation


Definitions of Liver transplantation

Patient Resources / Community

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Directions to Hospitals Treating Liver transplantation

Risk calculators and risk factors for Liver transplantation

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Liver transplantation

Causes & Risk Factors for Liver transplantation

Diagnostic studies for Liver transplantation

Treatment of Liver transplantation

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Liver transplantation


Liver transplantation en Espanol

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Liver transplantation in the Marketplace

Patents on Liver transplantation

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Liver transplantation

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief:


Liver transplantation or hepatic transplantation is the replacement of a diseased liver with a healthy liver allograft. The most commonly used technique is orthotopic transplantation, in which the native liver is removed and the donor organ is placed in the same anatomic location as the original liver. Liver transplantation nowadays is a well accepted treatment option for end-stage liver disease and acute liver failure.

Liver Transplantation


  • In the 1960s, Thomas Starzl used dogs as the first animals for research on liver transplantation in Boston and Chicago.
  • In 1963, the first liver transplant in humans was attempted by a surgical team led by Dr. Thomas Starzl[1] of Denver, Colorado, United States.
  • Dr. Starzl performed several additional transplants over the next few years before the first short-term success was achieved in 1967 with the first one-year survival post-transplantation.
  • In 1970, the regimen for immunosuppressive therapy following transplant was introduced, but azathioprine and steroids did not improve survival rates of patients.
  • In the 1980s, with the introduction of cyclosporine by Sir Roy Calne, there was an improvement in rejection rates.
  • In 1983, liver transplantation was no longer an experimental modality, but a clinically acceptable form of therapy for both adult and pediatric patients with appropriate indications.
  • In 1986, the introduction of monoclonal antibodies such as muromonab-CD3 [OKT3] further contributed to improvement of quality of immunosuppressive therapy used in patients, with significant decline in rejection rates.
  • In 1988, University of Wisconsin (UW) solution was developed, which ensured a smooth surgery and longer preservation period.
  • In 1992, the concept of xenotransplantation and cloning techniques were introduced by Starzl.
  • In 1999, approximately 5000 procedures were carried out, in contrast to 100 which had been performed a decade earlier.
  • Recently, the introduction of newer immunosuppressive agents such as IL-2 receptor blockers and tacrolimus, have drastically increased patient survival rates to 1 and 5-year rates of approximately 85 and 70 percent respectively.[2]
  • Liver transplantation is now performed at over one hundred centers in the USA, as well as numerous centers in Europe and elsewhere. One year patient survival is 85-90%, and outcomes continue to improve, although liver transplantation remains a formidable procedure with frequent complications.
  • Unfortunately, the supply of liver allografts from non-living donors is far short of the number of potential recipients, a reality that has spurred the development of living donor liver transplantation.
  • In December 2016, 147,128 liver transplants were performed in the US as compared to 7217 in 1998 based on data from the United Organ Sharing (UNOS) network.



Absolute contraindications: [3]

Relative contraindications:[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]

Pretransplant evaluation


Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

Immunosuppressive management


  • Prognosis is quite good:
    • 1-year survival is 83%
    • 5-year survival is 76%
    • 10-year survival is 66%
  • Majority of deaths happen during the first three months after transplantation.

Living donor transplantation

  • Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has emerged in recent decades as a critical surgical option for patients with end stage liver disease, such as cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma often attributable to one or more of the following:
  • The concept of LDLT is based on:
    • Remarkable regenerative capacities of the human liver
    • Widespread shortage of cadaveric livers for patients awaiting transplant
  • In LDLT, a piece of healthy liver is surgically removed from a living person and transplanted into a recipient, immediately after the recipient’s diseased liver has been entirely removed.
  • Historically, LDLT was used as a means for parents of children with severe liver disease to donate a portion of their healthy liver to replace the damaged liver of their children.
  • In 1986, the first successful LDLT was performed at the Universidade de São Paulo (USP) Medical School, by Dr. Silvano Raia.
  • More technically demanding than standard, cadaveric donor liver transplantation
  • Has faced several ethical problems

Complications of Liver Transplantation

  • Immediate postoperative complications of liver transplantation include:
  • The most common causes of death in liver transplant patients are as follows:
  • To monitor the patient for complications, the following investigations are used:

Laboratory investigations

Imaging studies

Acute and chronic graft rejection

Acute graft rejection:[19][19]

Chronic graft rejection:


  • After the first 6 months, risk of infection in transplant patients is equal to that of the population.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV)

  • Most common viral infection (affects 25-85% patients)
  • Occurrence: Between posttransplant months 1 and 3
  • Infection may be:
    • Primary
    • Reactivated

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)

Other less common organisms causing infection include:

External Links


  2. Kanwal F, Dulai GS, Spiegel BM, Yee HF, Gralnek IM (2005). "A comparison of liver transplantation outcomes in the pre- vs. post-MELD eras". Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 21 (2): 169–77. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2005.02321.x. PMID 15679767.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Martin P, DiMartini A, Feng S, Brown R, Fallon M (2014). "Evaluation for liver transplantation in adults: 2013 practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the American Society of Transplantation". Hepatology. 59 (3): 1144–65. PMID 24716201.
  4. Mathurin P, Moreno C, Samuel D, Dumortier J, Salleron J, Durand F, Castel H, Duhamel A, Pageaux GP, Leroy V, Dharancy S, Louvet A, Boleslawski E, Lucidi V, Gustot T, Francoz C, Letoublon C, Castaing D, Belghiti J, Donckier V, Pruvot FR, Duclos-Vallée JC (2011). "Early liver transplantation for severe alcoholic hepatitis". N. Engl. J. Med. 365 (19): 1790–800. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1105703. PMID 22070476.
  5. Cooper C, Kanters S, Klein M, Chaudhury P, Marotta P, Wong P, Kneteman N, Mills EJ (2011). "Liver transplant outcomes in HIV-infected patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis with synthetic cohort". AIDS. 25 (6): 777–86. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e328344febb. PMID 21412058.
  6. Mindikoglu AL, Regev A, Magder LS (2008). "Impact of human immunodeficiency virus on survival after liver transplantation: analysis of United Network for Organ Sharing database". Transplantation. 85 (3): 359–68. doi:10.1097/TP.0b013e3181605fda. PMID 18301332.
  7. Terrault NA, Roland ME, Schiano T, Dove L, Wong MT, Poordad F, Ragni MV, Barin B, Simon D, Olthoff KM, Johnson L, Stosor V, Jayaweera D, Fung J, Sherman KE, Subramanian A, Millis JM, Slakey D, Berg CL, Carlson L, Ferrell L, Stablein DM, Odim J, Fox L, Stock PG (2012). "Outcomes of liver transplant recipients with hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection". Liver Transpl. 18 (6): 716–26. doi:10.1002/lt.23411. PMC 3358510. PMID 22328294.
  8. Cross TJ, Antoniades CG, Muiesan P, Al-Chalabi T, Aluvihare V, Agarwal K, Portmann BC, Rela M, Heaton ND, O'Grady JG, Heneghan MA (2007). "Liver transplantation in patients over 60 and 65 years: an evaluation of long-term outcomes and survival". Liver Transpl. 13 (10): 1382–8. doi:10.1002/lt.21181. PMID 17902123.
  9. Prachalias AA, Pozniak A, Taylor C, Srinivasan P, Muiesan P, Wendon J, Cramp M, Williams R, O'Grady J, Rela M, Heaton ND (2001). "Liver transplantation in adults coinfected with HIV". Transplantation. 72 (10): 1684–8. PMID 11726833.
  10. Wreghitt T (2001). "Liver Transplantation in Adults Coinfected With HIV. Transplantation 2001; 72: 1684". Transplantation. 72 (10): 1594–5. PMID 11726816.
  11. Stock P, Roland M, Carlson L, Freise C, Hirose R, Terrault N, Frassetto L, Coates T, Roberts J, Ascher N (2001). "Solid organ transplantation in HIV-positive patients". Transplant. Proc. 33 (7–8): 3646–8. PMID 11750549.
  12. Stock PG, Roland ME, Carlson L, Freise CE, Roberts JP, Hirose R, Terrault NA, Frassetto LA, Palefsky JM, Tomlanovich SJ, Ascher NL (2003). "Kidney and liver transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: a pilot safety and efficacy study". Transplantation. 76 (2): 370–5. doi:10.1097/01.TP.0000075973.73064.A6. PMID 12883195.
  13. Neff GW, Bonham A, Tzakis AG, Ragni M, Jayaweera D, Schiff ER, Shakil O, Fung JJ (2003). "Orthotopic liver transplantation in patients with human immunodeficiency virus and end-stage liver disease". Liver Transpl. 9 (3): 239–47. doi:10.1053/jlts.2003.50054. PMID 12619020.
  14. Friend PJ (1997). "Liver transplantation". Transplant. Proc. 29 (6): 2716–8. PMID 9290801.
  15. McCaughan GW, Koorey DJ (1997). "Liver transplantation". Aust N Z J Med. 27 (4): 371–8. PMID 9448876.
  16. Middleton PF, Duffield M, Lynch SV, Padbury RT, House T, Stanton P, Verran D, Maddern G (2006). "Living donor liver transplantation--adult donor outcomes: a systematic review". Liver Transpl. 12 (1): 24–30. PMID 16498709.
  17. Perry I, Neuberger J (2005). "Immunosuppression: towards a logical approach in liver transplantation". Clin. Exp. Immunol. 139 (1): 2–10. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2005.02662.x. PMC 1809260. PMID 15606606.
  18. Papadopoulos-Köhn A, Achterfeld A, Paul A, Canbay A, Timm J, Jochum C, Gerken G, Herzer K (2015). "Daily low-dose tacrolimus is a safe and effective immunosuppressive regimen during telaprevir-based triple therapy for hepatitis C virus recurrence after liver transplant". Transplantation. 99 (4): 841–7. doi:10.1097/TP.0000000000000399. PMID 25208324.
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 Savitsky EA, Uner AB, Votey SR (1998). "Evaluation of orthotopic liver transplant recipients presenting to the emergency department". Ann Emerg Med. 31 (4): 507–17. PMID 9546022.
  20. Greendyke WG, Pereira MR (2016). "Infectious Complications and Vaccinations in the Posttransplant Population". Med. Clin. North Am. 100 (3): 587–98. doi:10.1016/j.mcna.2016.01.008. PMID 27095647.
  • Eghtesad B, Kadry Z, Fung J (2005). "Technical considerations in liver transplantation: what a hepatologist needs to know (and every surgeon should practice)". Liver Transpl. 11 (8): 861–71. PMID 16035067.
  • Adam R, McMaster P, O'Grady JG, Castaing D, Klempnauer JL, Jamieson N, Neuhaus P, Lerut J, Salizzoni M, Pollard S, Muhlbacher F, Rogiers X, Garcia Valdecasas JC, Berenguer J, Jaeck D, Moreno Gonzalez E (2003). "Evolution of liver transplantation in Europe: report of the European Liver Transplant Registry". Liver Transpl. 9 (12): 1231–43. PMID 14625822.
  • Reddy S, Zilvetti M, Brockmann J, McLaren A, Friend P (2004). "Liver transplantation from non-heart-beating donors: current status and future prospects". Liver Transpl. 10 (10): 1223–32. PMID 15376341.
  • Tuttle-Newhall JE, Collins BH, Desai DM, Kuo PC, Heneghan MA (2005). "The current status of living donor liver transplantation". Curr Probl Surg. 42 (3): 144–83. PMID 15859440.
  • Martinez OM, Rosen HR (2005). "Basic concepts in transplant immunology". Liver Transpl. 11 (4): 370–81. PMID 15776458.
  • Krahn LE, DiMartini A (2005). "Psychiatric and psychosocial aspects of liver transplantation". Liver Transpl. 11 (10): 1157–68. PMID 16184540.
  • Nadalin S, Malagò M, et al. Current trends in live liver donation. Transpl. Int. 2007;20:312-30.
  • Vohra V. Liver transplantation in India. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 2006;44:137-49.
  • Strong RW. Living-donor liver transplantation: an overview. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2006;13:370-7.
  • Fan ST. Live donor liver transplantation in adults. Transplantation. 2006;82:723-32.

bg:Чернодробна трансплантация de:Lebertransplantation it:Trapianto di fegato he:השתלת כבד nl:Levertransplantatie fi:Maksansiirto