Difference between revisions of "Jaundice differential diagnosis"

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== Overview ==
 
== Overview ==
Jaundice is yellowish discoloration of the skin, conjunctiva (a clear covering over the sclera, or whites of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia. Usually, the concentration of bilirubin in the blood must exceed 2–3 mg/dL for the coloration to be easily visible. This page contains different causes of jaundice.
+
Jaundice is yellowish discoloration of the skin, [[conjunctiva]], and [[Mucous membrane|mucous membranes]] caused by [[hyperbilirubinemia]]. Usually, the concentration of [[bilirubin]] in the blood must exceed 2–3 mg/dL for the coloration to be easily visible.  
  
 
== Differential diagnosis of jaundice ==
 
== Differential diagnosis of jaundice ==
'''''The differential diagnosis for jaundice, click [[Jaundice differential diagnosis#Jaundice|here]]'''.''
 
  
'''''The differential diagnosis for jaundice and RUQ pain, click [[Jaundice and RUQ pain|here]]'''.''
+
'''''For the differential diagnosis for jaundice and RUQ pain, click [[Jaundice and RUQ pain|here]]'''.''
  
'''''The differential diagnosis for jaundice and pruritis, click [[Jaundice and pruritis|here]]'''.''
+
'''''For the differential diagnosis for jaundice and pruritis, click [[Jaundice and pruritis|here]]'''.''
  
'''''The differential diagnosis for jaundice and fever, click [[Jaundice and fever|here]]'''.''
+
'''''For the differential diagnosis for jaundice and fever, click [[Jaundice and fever|here]]'''.''
  
'''''The differential diagnosis for jaundice, fever, and RUQ pain, click [[Jaundice, fever, and RUQ pain|here]]'''.''
+
'''''For the differential diagnosis for jaundice, fever, and RUQ pain, click [[Jaundice, fever, and RUQ pain|here]]'''.''
  
'''''The differential diagnosis for jaundice, pruritis and RUQ pain, click [[Jaundice, pruritis and RUQ pain|here]]'''.''
+
'''''For the differential diagnosis for jaundice, pruritis and RUQ pain, click [[Jaundice, pruritis and RUQ pain|here]]'''.''
  
  
Differential diagnosis of jaundice are: <ref name="pmid28145671">{{cite journal |vauthors=Fargo MV, Grogan SP, Saguil A |title=Evaluation of Jaundice in Adults |journal=Am Fam Physician |volume=95 |issue=3 |pages=164–168 |year=2017 |pmid=28145671 |doi= |url=}}</ref>
+
Differential diagnosis of jaundice are: <ref name="pmid28145671">{{cite journal |vauthors=Fargo MV, Grogan SP, Saguil A |title=Evaluation of Jaundice in Adults |journal=Am Fam Physician |volume=95 |issue=3 |pages=164–168 |year=2017 |pmid=28145671 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid9287990">{{cite journal |vauthors=Leevy CB, Koneru B, Klein KM |title=Recurrent familial prolonged intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy associated with chronic liver disease |journal=Gastroenterology |volume=113 |issue=3 |pages=966–72 |year=1997 |pmid=9287990 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid18609700">{{cite journal |vauthors=Hov JR, Boberg KM, Karlsen TH |title=Autoantibodies in primary sclerosing cholangitis |journal=World J. Gastroenterol. |volume=14 |issue=24 |pages=3781–91 |year=2008 |pmid=18609700 |pmc=2721433 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid3115390">{{cite journal |vauthors=Bond LR, Hatty SR, Horn ME, Dick M, Meire HB, Bellingham AJ |title=Gall stones in sickle cell disease in the United Kingdom |journal=Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) |volume=295 |issue=6592 |pages=234–6 |year=1987 |pmid=3115390 |pmc=1247079 |doi= |url=}}</ref><ref name="pmid29226106">{{cite journal |vauthors=Malakouti M, Kataria A, Ali SK, Schenker S |title=Elevated Liver Enzymes in Asymptomatic Patients - What Should I Do? |journal=J Clin Transl Hepatol |volume=5 |issue=4 |pages=394–403 |year=2017 |pmid=29226106 |pmc=5719197 |doi=10.14218/JCTH.2017.00027 |url=}}</ref>
  
 
{| align="center"
 
{| align="center"
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! colspan="1" rowspan="1" align="center" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" |AST
 
! colspan="1" rowspan="1" align="center" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" |AST
 
! colspan="1" rowspan="1" align="center" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" |ALT
 
! colspan="1" rowspan="1" align="center" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" |ALT
! colspan="1" rowspan="1" align="center" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" |ALK
+
! colspan="1" rowspan="1" align="center" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" |ALP
 
! colspan="1" rowspan="1" align="center" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" |BLR Indirect
 
! colspan="1" rowspan="1" align="center" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" |BLR Indirect
 
! colspan="1" rowspan="1" align="center" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" |BLR Direct
 
! colspan="1" rowspan="1" align="center" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" |BLR Direct
 
! colspan="1" rowspan="1" align="center" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" |Viral serology
 
! colspan="1" rowspan="1" align="center" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" |Viral serology
 
|-
 
|-
! rowspan="25" align="center" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" |Jaundice
+
! rowspan="34" align="center" style="background:#4479BA; color: #FFFFFF;" |Jaundice
! colspan="1" rowspan="7" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" | Hepatocellular Jaundice
+
! colspan="1" rowspan="9" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Hepatocellular Jaundice
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Hemochromatosis
+
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Infiltrative liver disorders: [[Hemochromatosis]], [[amyloidosis]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
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| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Ferritin ↑  
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |[[Ferritin]] (hemochromatosis)
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Liver biopsy
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Liver biopsy
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Wilson's disease
+
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Wilson's disease]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
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| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Serum cerulloplasmin ↑
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Serum [[ceruloplasmin]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Liver biopsy
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Liver biopsy
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Viral hepatitis
+
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Hepatitis|Viral hepatitis]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
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| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Alcoholic hepatitis
+
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Alcoholic hepatitis]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
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| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Autoimmune hepatitis
+
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Autoimmune hepatitis]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
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| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Anti-LKM antibody
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |[[Anti-LKM antibody]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Liver biopsy
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Liver biopsy
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Cirrhosis
+
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Cirrhosis]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
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| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Small liver on ultrasond
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Small liver on ultrasond
 
|-
 
|-
! rowspan="6" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" | Cholestatic Jaundice
+
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease|Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis]]
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Common bile duct stone
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑/N
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |[[Lipoprotein disorders|Dyslipidemia]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |liver biopsy
 +
|-
 +
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Ischemic hepatitis|Ischemic hepatopathy]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑/N
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |[[Circulatory system|Cardiovascular]] risk factors
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 +
|-
 +
! rowspan="11" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Cholestatic Jaundice
 +
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Common bile duct]] stone
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
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| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Dilated ducts on sono
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Dilated ducts on ultrasound
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |CT/ERCP
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |CT/[[Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography|ERCP]]
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Hepatitis A cholestatic type
+
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Cholangitis]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +/-
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Dilated ducts on ultrasound
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |CT/[[Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography|ERCP]]
 +
|-
 +
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Hepatitis A]] (cholestatic type)
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N/↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N/↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |HAV- AB
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |HAV- Ab
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Abdominal ultrasound
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Abdominal ultrasound
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |EBV / CMV hepatitis
+
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Epstein Barr virus|EBV]] / [[Cytomegalovirus infection|CMV]] hepatitis
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
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| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Positive serology
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Positive serology
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Primary biliary cirrhosis
+
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Primary biliary cirrhosis]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
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| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Liver biopsy
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Liver biopsy
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Primary sclerosing cholangitis
+
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Primary sclerosing cholangitis]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
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| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Beading on MRCP
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑Autoantibodies (P-ANCA), [[hypergammaglobulinemia]]
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Liver biopsy
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |[[Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography|MRCP]],
 +
Liver biopsy
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Pancreatic carcinoma
+
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Sickle-cell disease|Sickle cell disease]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +/-
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N/↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N/↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N/↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N/↑
Line 229: Line 271:
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Mass on ultrasond
+
| colspan="2" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Genetic testing
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |CT scan for diagnosis
 
 
|-
 
|-
! rowspan="11" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Isolated Jaundice
+
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |periampullary cancer
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Crigler-Najjar type 2
+
([[Pancreatic cancer|Pancreatic carcinoma]], [[cholangiocarcinoma]])
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N/↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N/↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |CT scan for diagnosis
 +
|-
 +
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[HIV AIDS|AIDS]] cholangiopathy
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N/↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N/↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |HIV Ab
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Ultrasound or [[Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography|ERCP]]
 +
|-
 +
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Parasites induces cholestasis
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N/↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N/↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Serology
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Ultrasound or [[Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography|ERCP]]
 +
|-
 +
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
| colspan="2" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Genetic testing
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |[[Thrombocytopenia]]
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Diagnosed clinically
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Gilbert
+
! rowspan="10" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Isolated Jaundice
 +
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Crigler-Najjar syndrome|Crigler-Najjar]] type 2
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
Line 259: Line 344:
 
| colspan="2" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Genetic testing
 
| colspan="2" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Genetic testing
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Rotor syndrome
+
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Gilbert's syndrome|Gilbert]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
Line 267: Line 352:
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Genetic testing
+
| colspan="2" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Genetic testing
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Liver biopsy
 
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Dubin-Johnson syndrome
+
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Rotor syndrome]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
Line 287: Line 371:
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Liver biopsy
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Liver biopsy
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Hereditory spherocytosis
+
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Dubin-Johnson syndrome]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |↑
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Genetic testing
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Genetic testing
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Osmotic fragility
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Liver biopsy
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |G6PD deficiency
+
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Hereditary spherocytosis]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
Line 312: Line 396:
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |N
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
| colspan="2" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Genetic testing
+
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Genetic testing
 +
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Osmotic fragility
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Thalassemia
+
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency|G6PD deficiency]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
Line 327: Line 412:
 
| colspan="2" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Genetic testing
 
| colspan="2" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Genetic testing
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Sickle cell disease
+
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Thalassemia]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | +
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
Line 340: Line 425:
 
| colspan="2" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Genetic testing
 
| colspan="2" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Genetic testing
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Paroxismal nocturnal hemoglobinoria
+
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |[[Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
Line 353: Line 438:
 
| colspan="2" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Flocytometery
 
| colspan="2" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" |Flocytometery
 
|-
 
|-
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Immune hemolysis
+
| colspan="1" rowspan="1" style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #DCDCDC;" align="center" |Immune [[hemolysis]]
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
 
| style="padding: 5px 5px; background: #F5F5F5;" align="center" | -/+
Line 382: Line 467:
 
|}
 
|}
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
{{Reflist|2}}
 
{{Reflist|2}}

Latest revision as of 20:25, 6 March 2018

Jaundice Microchapters

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Mehrian Jafarizade, M.D [2]

Overview

Jaundice is yellowish discoloration of the skin, conjunctiva, and mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia. Usually, the concentration of bilirubin in the blood must exceed 2–3 mg/dL for the coloration to be easily visible.

Differential diagnosis of jaundice

For the differential diagnosis for jaundice and RUQ pain, click here.

For the differential diagnosis for jaundice and pruritis, click here.

For the differential diagnosis for jaundice and fever, click here.

For the differential diagnosis for jaundice, fever, and RUQ pain, click here.

For the differential diagnosis for jaundice, pruritis and RUQ pain, click here.


Differential diagnosis of jaundice are: [1][2][3][4][5]

Classification of jaundice based on etiology Disease History and clinical manifestations Diagnosis
Lab Findings Other blood tests Other diagnostic
Family history Fever RUQ Pain Pruritis AST ALT ALP BLR Indirect BLR Direct Viral serology
Jaundice Hepatocellular Jaundice Infiltrative liver disorders: Hemochromatosis, amyloidosis + - -/+ - ↑/N ↑/N N - Ferritin ↑ (hemochromatosis) Liver biopsy
Wilson's disease + - -/+ - N ↑/N N - ↑ Serum ceruloplasmin Liver biopsy
Viral hepatitis - -/+ - - N ↑/N N + Specific viral antibody for each type -
Alcoholic hepatitis - -/+ -/+ - ↑↑ N ↑/N N - - -
Drug induced hepatitis - -/+ - - N ↑/N N - - -
Autoimmune hepatitis -/+ - - -/+ N ↑/N N - Anti-LKM antibody Liver biopsy
Cirrhosis -/+ -/+ -/+ - ↑/N ↑/N ↑/N -/+ Low platate Small liver on ultrasond
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis -/+ - - - N ↑/N N - Dyslipidemia liver biopsy
Ischemic hepatopathy -/+ - -/+ - N ↑/N N - Cardiovascular risk factors -
Cholestatic Jaundice Common bile duct stone -/+ - + + N N N - Dilated ducts on ultrasound CT/ERCP
Cholangitis - + + +/- N N N - Dilated ducts on ultrasound CT/ERCP
Hepatitis A (cholestatic type) - -/+ + + N/↑ N/↑ N + HAV- Ab Abdominal ultrasound
EBV / CMV hepatitis - -/+ + + N N N + Positive serology -
Primary biliary cirrhosis -/+ + -/+ + N/↑ N/↑ N - AMA positive Liver biopsy
Primary sclerosing cholangitis -/+ - -/+ + N/↑ N/↑ N - ↑Autoantibodies (P-ANCA), hypergammaglobulinemia MRCP,

Liver biopsy

Sickle cell disease + - - +/- N/↑ N/↑ N - Genetic testing
periampullary cancer

(Pancreatic carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma)

+ - -/+ -/+ N/↑ N/↑ N - - CT scan for diagnosis
AIDS cholangiopathy - - -/+ -/+ N/↑ N/↑ N - HIV Ab Ultrasound or ERCP
Parasites induces cholestasis - - -/+ -/+ N/↑ N/↑ N - Serology Ultrasound or ERCP
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy -/+ - -/+ + N - Thrombocytopenia Diagnosed clinically
Isolated Jaundice Crigler-Najjar type 2 + - - - N N N - Genetic testing
Gilbert + - - - N N N - Genetic testing
Rotor syndrome + - - - N N N N - Genetic testing Liver biopsy
Dubin-Johnson syndrome + - - - N N N N - Genetic testing Liver biopsy
Hereditary spherocytosis + - -/+ - N N N N - Genetic testing Osmotic fragility
G6PD deficiency + - - - N N N N - Genetic testing
Thalassemia + - - - N N N N - Genetic testing
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - - - - N N N N - Flocytometery
Immune hemolysis - -/+ - - N N N N - Autoantibodies
Hematoma - -/+ - - N N N N - Anemia Truma or surgery in history

References

  1. Fargo MV, Grogan SP, Saguil A (2017). "Evaluation of Jaundice in Adults". Am Fam Physician. 95 (3): 164–168. PMID 28145671. 
  2. Leevy CB, Koneru B, Klein KM (1997). "Recurrent familial prolonged intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy associated with chronic liver disease". Gastroenterology. 113 (3): 966–72. PMID 9287990. 
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