Hemangioma pathophysiology

Revision as of 19:23, 12 November 2015 by Nawal Muazam (talk | contribs)
Jump to: navigation, search

Hemangioma Microchapters

Home

Patient Information

Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Hemangioma from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Study of Choice

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Electrocardiogram

X Ray

CT

MRI

Ultrasound

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Surgery

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Hemangioma pathophysiology On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides

Images

American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Hemangioma pathophysiology

All Images
X-rays
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images
MRI

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Hemangioma pathophysiology

CDC on Hemangioma pathophysiology

Hemangioma pathophysiology in the news

Blogs on Hemangioma pathophysiology

Directions to Hospitals Treating Hemangioma

Risk calculators and risk factors for Hemangioma pathophysiology

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1];Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Nawal Muazam M.D.[2]

Overview

On microscopic histopathological analysis channels lined by benign endothelium containing RBCs are findings of hemangioma.[1]

Pathophysiology

Pathogenesis

The pathogenesis of hepatic hemangiomas has not been elucidated, but there are two competing theories.

First theory

  • The first theory supports the notion that there is overexpression of angiogenic factors such as:[2]
  • And there is downregulation of some inhibitors of angiogenesis such as:[2]

Second theory

  • The second theory is that the presence of liver hemangiomas involves a genetic background of mutations.[2]
  • Genetic errors in growth factor receptors have also been shown to affect development of hemangiomas.
  • Zhang et al. presumed that metalloproteinases accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum of the tumor cells causing:
  • Self-digestion
  • Vacuole formation
  • Additionally, Hu et al. showed the cavernous hemangioma cell to downregulate Derlin-1.
  • Derlin-1 is a protein that when overexpressed induces the dilated endoplasmic reticulum to return to its normal size.

Third theory

  • The third theory suggests that hemangioma endothelial cells arise from disrupted placental tissue imbedded in fetal soft tissues during gestation or birth.[3]
  • Markers of hemangiomas have been shown to coincide with those found in placental tissue.
  • This is further supported by the fact that they are found more commonly in infants following:[3]
  • Chorionic villus sampling
  • Placenta previa
  • Preeclampsia

Genetics

Associated Conditions

Hemangioma may be associated with:

  • POEMS syndrome
  • Castleman disease

Gross Pathology

Microscopic Pathology

On microscopic histopathological analysis channels lined by benign endothelium containing RBCs are findings of hemangioma.[1]

Gallery

Immunohistochemistry

Hemangioma is demonstrated by positivity to:[1]

  • CD31 positive
  • D2-40 negative

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Microscopic features of hemangioma. Librepathology (2015). http://librepathology.org/wiki/index.php/Hemangioma. Accessed on November 12, 2015
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Papafragkakis, Haris; Moehlen, Martin; Garcia-Buitrago, Monica T.; Madrazo, Beatrice; Island, Eddie; Martin, Paul (2011). "A Case of a Ruptured Sclerosing Liver Hemangioma". International Journal of Hepatology. 2011: 1–5. doi:10.4061/2011/942360. ISSN 2090-3456.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Richter, Gresham T.; Friedman, Adva B. (2012). "Hemangiomas and Vascular Malformations: Current Theory and Management". International Journal of Pediatrics. 2012: 1–10. doi:10.1155/2012/645678. ISSN 1687-9740.



Linked-in.jpg