CXCL1

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The chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family that was previously called GRO1 oncogene, GROα, KC, neutrophil-activating protein 3 (NAP-3) and melanoma growth stimulating activity, alpha (MGSA-α). In humans, this protein is encoded by the Cxcl1.[1]

Function

CXCL1 is secreted by human melanoma cells, has mitogenic properties and is implicated in melanoma pathogenesis.[2][3] CXCL1 is expressed by macrophages, neutrophils and epithelial cells,[4][5] and has neutrophil chemoattractant activity.[6][7] CXCL1 plays a role in spinal cord development by inhibiting the migration of oligodendrocyte precursors and is involved in the processes of angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, inflammation, wound healing, and tumorigenesis.[8][9][10][11][12] This chemokine elicits its effects by signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR2.[8] The gene for CXCL1 is located on human chromosome 4 amongst genes for other CXC chemokines.[13] An initial study in mice showed evidence that CXCL1 decreased the severity of multiple sclerosis and may offer a neuro-protective function.[14]

References

  1. Haskill S, Peace A, Morris J, Sporn SA, Anisowicz A, Lee SW, Smith T, Martin G, Ralph P, Sager R (October 1990). "Identification of three related human GRO genes encoding cytokine functions". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (19): 7732–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.19.7732. PMC 54822. PMID 2217207.
  2. Anisowicz A, Bardwell L, Sager R (October 1987). "Constitutive overexpression of a growth-regulated gene in transformed Chinese hamster and human cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84 (20): 7188–92. doi:10.1073/pnas.84.20.7188. PMC 299255. PMID 2890161.
  3. Richmond A, Thomas HG (February 1988). "Melanoma growth stimulatory activity: isolation from human melanoma tumors and characterization of tissue distribution". J. Cell. Biochem. 36 (2): 185–98. doi:10.1002/jcb.240360209. PMID 3356754.
  4. Iida N, Grotendorst GR (October 1990). "Cloning and sequencing of a new gro transcript from activated human monocytes: expression in leukocytes and wound tissue". Mol. Cell. Biol. 10 (10): 5596–9. PMC 361282. PMID 2078213.
  5. Becker S, Quay J, Koren HS, Haskill JS (March 1994). "Constitutive and stimulated MCP-1, GRO alpha, beta, and gamma expression in human airway epithelium and bronchoalveolar macrophages". Am. J. Physiol. 266 (3 Pt 1): L278–86. PMID 8166297.
  6. Moser B, Clark-Lewis I, Zwahlen R, Baggiolini M (May 1990). "Neutrophil-activating properties of the melanoma growth-stimulatory activity". J. Exp. Med. 171 (5): 1797–802. doi:10.1084/jem.171.5.1797. PMC 2187876. PMID 2185333.
  7. Schumacher C, Clark-Lewis I, Baggiolini M, Moser B (November 1992). "High- and low-affinity binding of GRO alpha and neutrophil-activating peptide 2 to interleukin 8 receptors on human neutrophils". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89 (21): 10542–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.21.10542. PMC 50375. PMID 1438244.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Tsai HH, Frost E, To V, Robinson S, Ffrench-Constant C, Geertman R, Ransohoff RM, Miller RH (August 2002). "The chemokine receptor CXCR2 controls positioning of oligodendrocyte precursors in developing spinal cord by arresting their migration". Cell. 110 (3): 373–83. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(02)00838-3. PMID 12176324.
  9. Vries MH, Wagenaar A, Verbruggen SE, Molin DG, Dijkgraaf I, Hackeng TH, Post MJ (April 2015). "CXCL1 promotes arteriogenesis through enhanced monocyte recruitment into the peri-collateral space". Angiogenesis. 18 (2): 163–71. doi:10.1007/s10456-014-9454-1. PMID 25490937.
  10. Devalaraja RM, Nanney LB, Du J, Qian Q, Yu Y, Devalaraja MN, Richmond A (August 2000). "Delayed wound healing in CXCR2 knockout mice". J. Invest. Dermatol. 115 (2): 234–44. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.2000.00034.x. PMC 2664868. PMID 10951241.
  11. Haghnegahdar H, Du J, Wang D, Strieter RM, Burdick MD, Nanney LB, Cardwell N, Luan J, Shattuck-Brandt R, Richmond A (January 2000). "The tumorigenic and angiogenic effects of MGSA/GRO proteins in melanoma". J. Leukoc. Biol. 67 (1): 53–62. PMC 2669312. PMID 10647998.
  12. Owen JD, Strieter R, Burdick M, Haghnegahdar H, Nanney L, Shattuck-Brandt R, Richmond A (September 1997). "Enhanced tumor-forming capacity for immortalized melanocytes expressing melanoma growth stimulatory activity/growth-regulated cytokine beta and gamma proteins". Int. J. Cancer. 73 (1): 94–103. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19970926)73:1<94::AID-IJC15>3.0.CO;2-5. PMID 9334815.
  13. Richmond A, Balentien E, Thomas HG, Flaggs G, Barton DE, Spiess J, Bordoni R, Francke U, Derynck R (July 1988). "Molecular characterization and chromosomal mapping of melanoma growth stimulatory activity, a growth factor structurally related to beta-thromboglobulin". EMBO J. 7 (7): 2025–33. PMC 454478. PMID 2970963.
  14. Omari KM, Lutz SE, Santambrogio L, Lira SA, Raine CS (January 2009). "Neuroprotection and remyelination after autoimmune demyelination in mice that inducibly overexpress CXCL1". Am. J. Pathol. 174 (1): 164–76. doi:10.2353/ajpath.2009.080350. PMC 2631329. PMID 19095949.

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